A person should now grasp the essential difference between Newton's idea of gravity and the idea of gravity developed by Einstein. In Newton's theory, a massive object generates a gravitational field of attractive force around it, that diminishes with the square of the distance from it. With Einstein's theory the situation is considerably more complex and complicated. Since Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory one can understand that any given field contains energy, and according to Einstein, energy is equivalent to mass. Energetic gravitational fields exhibit the effect of mass and generates an additional gravitational field. This is the idea behind the creation of a black hole.
Be that as it may, physicist are concerned with what causes the radioactivity associated with the heavy atoms such as uranium. Newton's theory is that mass straight away attracts mass, his theory is in effect, linear. Einstein's theory is nonlinear, and consequently, his gravitational field creates another gravitational field which creates another field, in other words, it winds up like a tightly wound spring of a clock. In dealing with atoms containing only a few protons and a few neutrons, the gravitational spring does not get all that tightly wound up as they rotate and migrate through the spacetronic field, so they are not radioactive on the whole. With the massive elements they do get wound up, like a group of uranium atoms, and perhaps at the gravitational center of their masses and particularly within the atoms themselves, their bound up condition becomes overly condensed. The inner spacetronic fields become so tightly bound that there is no room for expansion. Remember, all spacetrons expand with time, even those contained in these heavy atoms. From time to time, these tightly wound up spacetronic fields have no room to expand in all directions, as the case may be. As a consequence, they create an outward force that the expanding field cannot contain; the atoms lose their equilibrium and explode releasing alpha, beta, and gamma rays. The atom is said to be radioactive.
The phenomena of nature as depicted by the Space Quantum Theory simply is that space is quantized, and there is a quid pro quo between the space quanta of expanding spacetrons forming space, and the contracting spacetrons forming mass. The exchange of space for energy is the result of the space expansion factor. Space is infinite, therefore, there is no place into which space can expand, so, this very fact, that space in the universe is in a state of expansion, requires that some space units must contract. The expansion factor is the reason for the creation of the electromagnetic envelopes, energy forming pockets, consequently the creation of mass. These compressed spacetronic fields give rise to transitory energy, heat, light. The spacetronic waves form rotary energies which are called mass, following the law of the line of least resistance. Spacetrons are simply stationary standing wave vibrating units that extends infinitely as far as the imagination of mind can see. Time is the ticking off of the universal expansion rate which generates the impetus force that causes the creation of mass to occur in the galaxy. The continuum vibrates with the speed of light squared and in all directions randomly. However, within and around mass, understanding that mass is an organized compressed spacetronic field of motion, the impetus randomness takes a directional orientation, and the direction is toward the center of the mass, moving with the speed of light; this action is called gravity. The vibration, being directed inwardly toward and around mass, may be considered a form of electromagnetic energy that holds mass together. Since all electromagnetic energy is quantized, according to an action quantum discovered by Planck, while measuring the radiant energy emitted in experiments with a black body; it seems logical that if one divides this action quantum "h" into the energy of the field, or in other words "C^2," they will find the frequency "f" associated with the universal spacetronic field quantum. This equation yields a frequency of 1.5 X 10 ^50. If we divide this frequency into the speed of light, 3 X 10 ^8 one finds that the wavelength "w" of the field quantum is 2 X 10 ^-42 meters.
C ^ 2 / h = i* Spacetronic frquency = 1.5 X 10 ^50 cycles/second
C / f = i^ Spacetronic wavelength = 2 X 10 ^-42 meters
C equals the speed of light, h equals Planck's constant, i* equals the frequency, and i^ equeals the wavelength.
These equations indicate that the elasticity of the spacetronic field is C ^2; its force in any one direction is C. For this reason the top speed of an electromagnetic wave which propagates through the spacetronic field is C. Nothing can move faster than the speed of light in the universe, as dictated by the space quanta's vibratory motion and the impetus force that drives mass and energy though the spacetronic field. The size of the spacetronic wavelength is exceedingly small in comparison to the mass and energy units which one is able to measure. Consequently, the universal spacetronic field is a high frequency energy field. (5.6095 x 10^35 eV.) When the radiation of a high frequency falls on an electron it behaves mechanically in some ways as if it were a particle of energy, it's photon strikes the electron moving the electron, which motion sets up a magnetic field around the atom. By the time this high frequency radiation reaches the nucleus of the atom it is a highly condensed spacetronic field of radiation, its photon acts as the strong force that binds the quarks to one another in an equilateral triangle forming protons and neutrons as to the quarks spasonic, up or down, make up. Penetrating further into the quark, the energy, which physicist called 'color', gives rise to the gyroscopic spin of the three spasonic string fields that compose the quarks, the spacetron itself is the photon. This spasonic spin field binds quarks together into systems that forms a balance at the center of the triangle, stabilizing the unit so that it does not tip over or become unstable. See Fig 10
It should be noted that the magnetic field around a moving electric energy in a wire, is the same type of field caused by the high frequency radiation of the spacetronic field impinging on the electrons of the atom. However, in this event it is the electronic force moving through the wire that organizes the high frequency radiation of the spacetronic field, thus, creating the magnetic field around the wire which is called the magnetic flux. The spacetronic field in which the string spasons propagate, of course, is still an expanding spacetronic field. The weakness of the expansion factor of this field gives rise to the radioactivity of the heavy elements such as radium, uranium and thorium. Over the billions of years of existence this field has weakened and has become unsupportable of the larger mass units. It has the property of emitting particles or radiation from an atomic nucleus such as alpha rays, beta rays and gamma radiation. This is what is know as the weak force, giving heavy atoms a half life. It is thought that this field once supported the higher elements physicist are able to create in the high speed accelerators, but since the field has weakened in the Universal Adiabatic Process, it no longer can support them and they decay rather rapidly after being created. The forgoing gives the Space Quantum Theory's interpretation of the gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak forces of the natural phenomena, all of which stems from the expansion of the spacetronic field and its elasticity of vibratory action.
Ernst Mach, the Austrian physicist, was not satisfied with Newton's idea of an absolute space in which the inertial frames could be measured as moving in a straight line at a constant speed when not subjected to forces. Mach said that the existence of inertial frames is bound up with the large-scale distribution of matter within the universe, and its gravitational effect. This is known as Mach's principle. He also claimed that large-scale distribution of mass was homogeneous and isotropic. In Mach's view, matter has inertia only because there is other matter in the universe. When a body rotates, its inertia produces centrifugal forces, but these forces appear only because the body rotates "relative to the fixed stars", as Mach said,." If those fixed stars were suddenly to disappear, centrifugal forces of the rotating body would disappear with them, as well as its inertia".
What Mach seems to be saying, if there was no other mass in existence to present a resistance against a masses outward spinning push, without those other masses in the universe, the centrifugal force would be negligible. In this respect, all mass in the universe presents an opposition to one another through the expansion of the spacetronic field that generates the gravitational potential, which creates the inertia of mass.
From the beginning, radio active centers have played a distinct roll in their relationship with one another by means of their radiation energies. In their adult stage, celestial objects reach out their interactions, throughout the universe at large to the distant stars and galaxies, and exercised a helpful influence upon one another. Even everyday actions, down to the smallest details, are closely integrated with the universe as a whole, to the point, that without the rest of the universe man's world would not exist; if it could, what would be its meaning? It would not be capable of evolving into man's conscious world that now exists, with his potential to enjoy it. While the expansion factor creates energy, the interchange of photons forever keeps the units in a growing condition of action and reaction, in a state of higher evolution. Einstein was powerfully influenced by Mach's ideas when developing his general relativity theory, although he never completely integrate Mach's Principle into his theory because of the principle of equivalence. The gravitational mass and the inertial mass are of the same nature, therefore, matter has an ingrain quality of its own, and this disturbed Einstein in regards to the distribution of mass and its effect on mass. Einstein in his latter years slowly began to realize that space has an existence of its own apart from mass. He conceived the gravitational field, meaning the function Gik of his theory, as being the realness of space. Without this realness, this topology of space, space is nothing but emptiness, a space without field. In this he agrees with Descartes who claimed that space was the extension of mass, there is no such a thing as empty space. Apparently Descartes ideas profoundly influenced his thoughts also. The Space Quantum theory agrees with Mach's Principle, however, it is not mass that is propelling the dynamics of the universe, rather, it is the quanta of space in expansion that generates the impetus force. The force that is responsible for both gravity, and by its restrictive action on objects when under acceleration. Further, in the future, this same impetus force may be radially directed in a space station by slowly rotating the station, thus, creating a centrifugal force which will act on objects exactly as a gravitational field. People walking around the perimeter of the space station will not know the difference between working in the station or working on earth. As a matter of fact, the gravity of the space station may be regulated so that things will be less cumbersome with which to work.
A word about antimatter. Comic rays that are generated in the galactic nucleus come crashing into particles in the atmosphere often create antimatter. Man made accelerators create violent collisions required to probe the interior of atoms, which create new particles that have exactly the same mass as an electron or proton. This particle is the mirror image of the real particle and is called an anti-electron or positron and or antiproton since it has the opposite values of electrical charge and any other charges. It is created in high energy collisions where particles momentarily stop and head off in opposite directs, maintaining the same spin orientation, having a right handedness for a particle and left handedness for an antiparticle. When the antiparticle meets a real particle both are annihilated; there energies radiate off in electromagnetic waves. See fig 23
It is the supposition of cosmologists that when a star has exhausted all the thermonuclear fuel necessary to produce the heat and pressure supporting it against gravity, the star collapses into a black whole. This process seemed to correspond to the Schwarzchild and Roy Kerr solutions of Einstein's equations. Although black holes are speculations of celestial happenings by Penrose, Stephen Hawking and others, none has ever been confirmed as definitely existing and it may be, because Hawking radiation dissipates them. If it were not for this process discovered by Stephen Hawking, called Hawking's radiation, there should be great many black holes in the galaxy. This has to do with antiparticles.
A black hole has an event horizon and an ergosphere. A particle enters the ergosphere, splits into two particles, one going across the horizon against the rotation direction, the other leaving the ergosphere, and reaching infinity with more mass-energy than the initial particle had. The hole's mass and angular momentum are reduced due to this action. The particle going across the horizon produces a drag on the rotation of the black hole which reduces the holes angular momentum as it drops into the hole. See Fig 24
Of course, in may very well be that when a celestial unit reaches the black hole state of being that it explodes in a super-nova. This may be the reason why none or just a few black holes exist, there is a good candidate in Cygnus X-1. It consists of a normal star rotating around another star cosmologist are not able to see, which seems to be sucking in matter from its companion star. Mool 24 - 30
There is a possibility that in the beginning of the universe the expansion of the spacetronic field created the impetus photons; these photons accumulated in pockets. Because the expanding spacetronic field was as strong as it ever possibly could be, the impetus force wound up so tightly bound that they drew in all generated impetus energies in the vicinity into their centers. Not being able to escape these compressed spacetronic energies, a rotating black hole developed. In time these black holes, and it is assumed there were many, became in equilibrium with the expanding spacetronic field; whereby the influx of high forces, high frequency energies began to slit into two photons. The negative photon entering the horizon of the black hole, going across it against the rotation direction, thus, slowing its angular momentum. The positive photon skirting the ergosphere. bounce off the black hole with more energy them it initially had, thus, creating the gamma rays that, even today, are impinging upon the earth as they travel toward infinity. Their is a US Gamma-ray Observatory Satellite that collects gamma rays and it indicates they come from all directions. See Fig 24
One can now think of the whole of the cosmos as being composed of contiguous space units forming a continuous transformation possibility for the path of an electromagnetic wave, such as gamma rays, light ray, or of the rotary energy wave such as the atom. If one supposes himself to be far away from any mass with a gravitational field and simply consider one of these space units in what can now be thought of as a spacetronic field. One can then assign to each unit its three spatial dimensions and the one expansion time dimension that affects the other three, that is, the increase of the volume of the unit as time proceeds, noticing that the unit breathes in a rhythmic frequency.
The unit can now be described as being a four dimensional vibrating unit, in a manifold of contiguous units forming the cosmos. Even without any mathematical knowledge, one can appreciate the reality of the space quantum as simply a four dimensional vibrating unit of space, three dimensions in extension and one dimension in expansion, which expansion is recognized and designate as time. As a matter of fact, the dimensions measured are simply relative to the world, and, in all probability, the exact total extension of the spacetronic unit can be vastly different, for instance, much larger than what one measures as far as the world's space is concerned. As time proceeds, the cosmic expansion time factor creates the mass units in the nucleus of galaxies by the law of compensation; it is a quid pro quo situation, space for energy that creates mass. These energy waves exhibits electromagnetic angular momentum in the spacetronic field, consequently, the galactic positions are relatively stable and positional. The energies they absorb and reflect are transitory energies moving throughout the spacetronic field, which energies are created by the expansion factor of the universe. Actually Einstein's equations predict expansion on the one hand and contraction on the other. Einstein's theory requires three dimensions in space and one in time. The SQT requires three dimensions in space and one dimension in expansion that determines time over long periods, indicated by the redshift. See Fig 25
These radio quasar were the result of the arbitrary contention between the positive and negative forces that created electromagnetic waves, which, even today, one is able to discern with gamma ray detectors, radio-scopes and telescopes. The synchrotron radiation between celestial units which is thought to have facilitated in the creation of mass units had not yet generated enough energy to have mass creating effects between quasar units. After perhaps many central internal positive energy explosions and the re-coalescing of these various cores of energy, eventually, as the synchrotron radiation between celestial units increased and infiltrated the cores of these units, gradually, strings of spasonic units began to appear and consequently quarks which coalesced into hydrogen and helium atoms and finally stars. With the evolution of the string spasonic units caused by the interplay between the positive-negative-magnetic forces, in conjunction with the radiant energy from other celestial units, the gravitational energy came into play and mass was born. Perhaps it was not long until the gyroscopic spasons developed into quarks which assembled into neutrons that evolved into proton-electron pairs forming hydrogen atoms. From probably eight dozen atoms, their evolutionary process created the molecular world structure found upon the earth.
It has not been clearly demonstrated that nature actually evolved the hadrons that physicists are able to create in the new high-energy proton accelerators, but more than likely they were created ages ago and have since disintegrated in the radio activity process as higher orders of mass were created and eventually life. Matter microscopes, the high-energy accelerators, have opened up a whole new world within matter, and it is hopeful that one day the basic world strings will fall out. Fig 10
Radio quasars were the first beginnings of the creation of the world. These celestial units can be detected with radio-scopes. However, after the creation of hydrogen atoms, and a few others that accumulated into clouds that surrounded the black hole, the "Hot Spot Core," the emission of the light spectra began to take place. Emission lines take place when the low-density gas is heated and zapped by high-energy radiations created by the synchrotron radiation producing electrons circling the central quasar core. It was determined by astronomers analyzing these types of spectra that something peculiar was occurring in light from these star-like objects. The spectrum of the continuum of quasars was ranging from radio frequencies, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x rays to gamma rays created by a powerful quasar engine. If quasars only emitted a continuous spectrum, which is what synchrotron radiation produces, it would be impossible to verify the extra-galactic origin of the quasars. Just a rainbow spectrum would be observed, no way could the redshift be established. However, emission lines were observed, but at first they made absolutely no sense at all until an astronomer, Maarten Schmidt in 1963, matched the normal lines of hydrogen and discovered that these same lines were found in the spectra of the light from these quasars; however, they were shifted toward the red end of the spectra. See Davies 186
The further away from earth quasars are found the greater the redshift, giving rise to the idea that as the emission energies of the quasars hot gas travel from the ancient past into present times, their frequencies undergo a redshift. As these energies pass through the vast space between quasars, they come upon cool gasses that are closer in space and time. The result is that all quasar spectrums show absorption lines, gaps in the spectrum that are not as red shifted as their emission lines indicate. It seems that as the quasar spectra passes through a cool gas cloud between them and the earth, a hydrogen atom, for instance, steals a photon from the radiation, and the electron of the atom moves to a higher level. This simple observation may give credence to the idea, the expansion of space causes redshift and not from quasars rushing away from earth. What this means is that the redshift is not caused by the motion of the quasar moving away from us, but rather by the space expanding between the quasar and the galaxy. As the space expands and mass is created in the various "hot spot cores," taking up this expansion space in the process, the electromagnetic waves spreads out as it passes through the various expanded space-time periods with galaxies in them. Thus, space expansion causes the redshift. The closer a galaxy is, having cool hydrogen clouds around them, the less redshift that units light spectra exhibits. These cool hydrogen clouds are nearer to us than the quasar that creates the spectrum. Consequently, the redshift of the absorption lines are lower than the redshift of the quasar's emission lines, in accordance with Hubble's Law. The less distance a celestial unit is, the less of a redshift the absorption lines will show, created by their cool clouds. The quasar spectrum shows a greater emission line redshift, simply because the quasar is further away than the galaxy containing the cool hydrogen clouds. All quasar spectrums have a less redshift absorption line. See Fig below
The less shifted absorption lines are telling
that, indeed, the various energies put out by the core of quasars and galaxies
do really interact in an exchange of energy between one another that propagates
growth and development. This energy exchange has been going on from the
inception of the expansion of the universe. The expanding fields create
contracting fields which fields create the electromagnetic waves. This has been
happening for the past 20 billion years as close as cosmologist can determine.
The universe is stable; forces are in equilibrium according to the SQT.
In the 1920's it was discovered that the Milky Way is not alone in the universe. In fact, it is one of billions, and because most other galaxies spectra show a redshift, it was immediately thought that the others were speeding away in all directions. A number of cosmologist are having second thoughts about the idea of this recession, because if it were true, some distant quasars are moving away with speeds close to the speed of light. The further celestial units are found the greater the redshift, so, it should not be long until one is able to see units moving beyond the speed of light according to their spectra reckoning. In view of Einstein's relativity theory, which prohibits mass moving beyond the speed of light, this does not make good sense.
Another thing concerning the correlation between distance and redshift is the fact that relatively nearby galaxies do not give the same redshift expected from their indicated distances. Thus, pointing to the idea that their creation was approximately formed in the same time frame as the local galaxy. Therefore, according to the SQT, it is not expected that there would be a great difference in the redshift concerning the distance between the local galaxies. A Dutch mathematician Willem de Sitter found a static solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity. Although the SQT states that the universe is in equilibrium, it does not mean galaxies do not move. As a matter of fact they do move, for instance, local galaxies are determined to be moving with a speed of 600 kilometers per second. This motion was determined in 1977 by investigators for the most part by using the background radiation as a frame work because its temperature is virtually constant across the entire sky. Using balloon-borne instruments it was recorded that in one particular direction the radiation was a few thousandth of a degree hotter than average and in the opposite direction it was cooler by the same amount. This can be determine by the radiation being red shifted in the one direction and blue shifted in the opposite direction, this being caused by the motion of the Milky Way. By the same method it is determined that all of the other galaxies around it are also in motion. Several groups of cosmologist are looking for what is termed "The Great Attractor" that they figure must be the cause of the motion of the local galaxy, as well as others. In fact The Milky Way belongs to the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and the super-cluster is moving at 600 kilometers per second toward the Hydra Centaurus Super-cluster. This super-cluster in turn is also moving toward what they think is "The Great Attractor," at 600 kilometers per second. If there is such an Attractor then the galaxy is being pushed toward that mass because of the expansion of space as it strives to hold that mass together and not by any power of the great mass itself. On the other hand, it may just be that, on a whole, the universe is no different than the solar system with rotating planets or the galaxies with rotating star masses. In other words, the clusters and super-clusters of galaxies, yes, and even the so called Great Attractor can be simply rotating around in a gigantic prodigious circle so enormous that one is only able to view, but a small segment of an ark of this colossal torus. The very fact that no galactic clusters or super-clusters can be found to be at rest or motionless relative to the microwave background might be telling that the vast scale motion of galaxies is circular or perhaps elliptical or donut shaped, as the case may be. This would be more in keeping with nature as a whole and with the Space Quantum Theory in particular, whereby, the quantum exists, not only in the finite, but also in the infinite realm of physical things. See Fig 28
Galaxies are like atoms and clusters and super-clusters are like molecules. They float around in the universal spacetronic field like gaseous molecules that float around in a container here on earth, of which its temperature can be determined. As gas molecules share motion (heat) with one another, likewise, it may be assumed the celestial molecules share celestial motion (heat) with one another, therefore, it is no wonder that the universe is bathed in an almost even three degree Kelvin temperature. It is simply the temperature of the universe as a whole assemble. It is the temperature of the universal spacetronic expanding field that is in equilibrium with the super-clusters of galaxies of the universe. Super-clusters of galaxies move around in the universe affecting one another with their motion just as molecules move around in a container affecting one another with their motion. Radio Astronomers claim the temperature of the universe is 2.7 degrees Kelvin. If this be the case there is no need of a Big Bang with all of its complications to explain the temperature of the universe. Then all of the super-clusters of galaxies seen started with little bangs all over the universe and evolved into what are seen today.
Since the article above was written it has been learned that team's surveying the galactic fields for the past six-year period (1984-1990) have finally discovered a point where galaxies no longer show peculiar motion, and farther out are galaxies with the opposite flow, back in the direction of the Milky Way. In other words cosmologist have reached the heart of the Great Attractor where all peculiar motion has ceased and galaxies are at rest with the expansion rate, and the background microwave field. This does not mean that they have found the center of the universe, but merely the center of a super-supergalactic field of which a number of galactic superclusters belong, including the local cluster. Galaxies on the far side of this center, when the red shift of the distance background radiation was subtracted, the recession velocities of galaxies were slowed producing a so called infall of motion. Based on the power of the Great Attractor astronomers have estimated its mass to be at least thirty times that of the Local Supercluster, the equivalent of 10,000 trillion suns. Even though the Milky Way obscures a large portion of this tremendous collection of galaxies from earth view, it is thought to be a flattened super-supergalactic field some 100 million light-years thick and twice as wide. The local group appears to be rushing sidelong across the expanding fabric of space, perhaps circling this huge conglomerate of galaxies. On the other hand, some astronomers were mapping the galaxies on the other side of the local cluster from the Grate Attractor and found a Great Wall of galaxies, the size only limited by the extent of their survey. Its dimensions are some half-billion light-years long, and about 200 million light-years wide. It is rather skinny, only 15 million light-years thick. This Great Wall of galaxies is known as the Perseus-Pisces-Pegasus Supercluster.
This stupendous configuration of galaxies does not appear to be drawing the local cluster toward it. By mapping the streaming velocities of galaxies over the vast expanse of space, astronomers hope to discover the distribution of galaxies, and consequently matter in the cosmos. One of the peculiar observations that is turning up with all investigators is the vastness of the huge quantities of space devoid of galaxies. Gigantic bubble like voids, some as large as 100 million light-years in diameter. Some groups think these voids gives the picture of the universe as a soap-bubble universe of separated voids. While others think of the universe as a sponge. Still others are trying to find what is termed the "missing mass", to close the universe, in these void spots, dark mass. The Space Quantum Theory sees these voids as a natural condition required of the expansion of the spacetronic field as necessary for the continual creation of mass in the center of all galaxies. As the hydrogen mass pores out of the galactic nucleus more void space develops around the galactic fields causing huge quantities of vacant space. This is a natural condition under the theory, just as the red shift in the light coming from the distant galaxies is a natural condition based on the expansion of the universe as a whole as time marches on. Not from galaxies speeding away, but simply because of the expansion factor.
In an article by John Boslough in the National Geographic, May 1989, he wrote about the search for the secrets of Gravity. He relates how Ephraim Fischbach of Purdue University, believes there is a natural force counteracting gravity. Ephraim arrived at this conclusion from experiments performed by Baron Roland von Evotvos, a Hungarian who measured the gravity effect on various materials. These tests showed objects fall at a different rate depending on their atomic makeup, tightly packed nuclei of atoms causes them to fall more slowly than less tightly packed nuclei. In 1986, Fischbach put forth a theory that tightly packed nuclei of protons and neutrons, such as occurs in some atoms gives rise to a repulsive effect of a fifth force. For instance, Fischbach claims that iron, having the most tightly packed nucleus of any element, even though uranium has more protons and neutrons, is nudged upward most vigorously by the fifth force. A proof of the spacetronic force may lie in this fifth force of Ephraim Fischback. The Space Quantum Theory claims that it is the spacetronic force that holds the nucleus together in the fist place. The spacetronic force which culminates in the center of each atom is much stronger in a more tightly packed nucleus, consequently, the lines of spacetronic force on an iron object is greater than, for instance, aluminum whose atomic nuclei are not as tightly packed. The earth has it's center of gravity, similarly, all objects have a center of gravity, also. Therefore, influenced by the gravitational field of the earth, iron will fall slower than aluminum since it is the weakness or strength of the field between the earth's center of gravity and an object's center of gravity, relative to the strength of the spacetronic field between them and that of the field surrounding both objects that determines the strength of the fall. The stronger field of the iron mass may give it a more vigorous nudge upward than aluminum. If it were the other way around between them, there would be a greater attraction. See vacuum chamber Fig below
The jury is still out on the decision of which theory of the evolution of the universe is the correct view. To date, the jury has not even been presented with the Space Quantum Theory, however, the three theories will be compared in this work, be compared nevertheless. The first real theory about the creation of the universe, besides the biblical account, " Let there be light", came with a Big Bang back in the 1920's from no other than a Belgian cleric, the Abbe Georges Lemaitre. Most astronomers have swung back and forth between The Hot Big Bang Theory and the Steady State Theory presented in 1948 by Fred Hoyle and colleagues that was first presented in Eccles. 1:9, "and there is no new thing under the sun". The Space Quantum Theory, first presented in 1963 in a small booklet, has not been published at this time in order to be considered. It is hoped that this book will be read and the theory presented to the jury at some time in the future. The Abbe proposed the beginning of all galaxies in the universe came from a concentrated single lump , which he called the primeval atom, that later George Gomow called the Ylem or Cosmic Egg. This atom then exploded, flinging all of the galactic material off into space whence they coalesced. This theory Gomow and his co-workers picked up and developed mathematically in a now famous paper written in 1948. In this paper they predicted that radiation from the very hot early stages of the universe should still be around today, but with its temperature reduced to only five degrees Kelvin. The fact that this background radiation was actually discovered by Penzias and Wilson in 1963 became the final proof that the universe began with the Hot Big Bang as far as Cosmologist were concerned. They claimed the universe started off with a homogeneous glob of matter containing all mass substances. This hot dense mass, with a temperature of 10^13 K and a density of 10^14 g/cm^3 for some ungodly reason simply blew apart. The huge explosion sent mass material out in all directions. Boiling together into elements of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium with a smattering of other elements in just a few hours. For the next million years or so, the universe continued expanding, without anything exciting happening. From that very hot temperature in the first few seconds, the temperature eventually dropped to a few thousand degrees. The neutrons and electrons, not having enough energy to overcome the electromagnetic attraction between one another, then, simply joined up to form the various atoms. Due to gravitational effects, denser than average areas appeared and this material coalesced into the galaxies seen today. They predicted that the hot fire ball's temperature should have cooled down to about five degrees Kelvin at the present time. These ideas 25% helium, which is readily determined to be in all galaxies, and a background radiation temperature of about three degrees K are given as proof that the universe started off in a Hot Big Bang. Of course it does not say why the Ylem was so hot or what it was made of to make it so hot. Nor does it explain why the Cosmic Egg parts, on the whole, are so evenly spread out. Then there is the consideration of the microwave background radiation and why the temperature is the same coming from all directions, when it takes that radiation 20 billion years to get here from one direction and the same time to get here from the opposite direction; how is this temperature identical when theory gives no reasonable connection between each opposite point for the temperature to be the same? For this reason big bang theorist had to invent an inflationary period to have occurred before the big bang to account for a causal relationship between the various parts of the universe, so that this background radiation is compatible with the theory. Of course the idea was conceived by the priest Lemaitre from the notion that all galaxies are moving away from one another, as judged by the redshift of the light spectrum coming from distant celestial objects. The indication was that space was expanding and carrying the galaxies along with it for the ride. The galaxies are not expanding nor the space within them it is just the space between them that is expanding. So it was natural to assume that at one time all the galaxies were in one spot at one time and must have exploded to produce the effect seen today. The Big Bang Theory pictures the galaxies moving away from one another as paper spots pasted on a balloon would move away from one another as the balloon was blown up. The further they are away they are, the faster they move, causing the redshift in their light spectrum. It does not explain what space is composed of or why it expands in the first place and many other questions, like, why does space look foamy up close and why do virtual particles pop in and out of the world. See Fig 30
The Steady State Theory, which Fred Hoyle and associates formulated in the 1940's, since there was a discrepancy between the age of the universe and the age of the earth and other celestial objects. The Hubble time limit of the universe was 1.8 billion years old. Yet the oldest rocks on earth are known to be at the least three billion years old. Analyzing the ages of the stars revealed numbers like 10 and 20 billion years. Walter Baade in 1952 recalculated the size of the universe and rescaled it by a factor of two which took care of that condition. These discrepancies were just too much for Hoyle and others so they invented the steady state idea which required the creation of mass in the voids between galaxies. He and his co-workers conceived the idea that it only required a small quantity of mass to be created (about one particle per cubic kilometer per year) that eventually coalesces into galaxies to take the place of those departing, producing the steady state view of the universe. They just assumed that the redshift was noncosmological so this was no concern to them. The expansion was real, it was caused by the pressure of the formation of new galaxies. The universe always looks the same way because new galaxies take the place of old galaxies and there is no discrepancy of age since galaxies can be almost any age. The Steady State Theory was believed to be the correct idea as to the way the universe was being created until its demise occurred with two discoveries. The first was the discovery of the radio-source count. In 1961 Martin Ryle and Peter Scheuer published counts of sources of cosmic radiation radio-frequencies. They thought the bright ones were nearby sources and the faint ones were distant sources. They reported that the density of radio sources increased as one went deeper into space. If the universe was always the same, as the Steady State claimed, then there were too many faint sources than there should have been for this to be the case. This simply means the Steady State Theory is not compatible with the faint radio count data. Another blow to the Steady State Theory was the discovery by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 when they discovered the radiation background temperature predicted by Gomow. Try as they may they could not get rid of the radio noise they heard in their big horn antenna. They later discovered that it must be the background radiation predicted by Gomow in his 1948 paper. There was another discovery in the 1970's pointing to the evolutionary nature of the universe. Maarten Schmidt did major observational work on quasars. He asserted there were a thousand more quasars two billion years ago indicating an evolving universe as evidence against the steady state model. So it was not long till cosmologist began once again to think about the Big Bang scenario. See Fig 31
In the previous pages it is hoped that The Space Quantum Theory has been explained with enough clarity for one to understand that space, the vacuum, is not a void, but rather is composed of stationary units which are called spacetrons that vibrate with the speed of light squared. Before the creation of the world they existed in a state of equilibrium, each unit occupying the same quantity of the expanse of the universe as its neighbor. In contrast with the Big Bang Theory the world of time and energy does not start in one place with a tremendous explosion of matter material, but rather, time began with the commencement of the expansion of these spacetronic units. For the same reason that the big bang people cannot explain why the material substance exploded to begin the world neither can the SQT explain why the spacetronic units began to expand to begin the world. Of course, one could suppose that the condition had always existed and that the beginning of the world was simply a new section of infinite space that was exhibiting this expansion effect for the first time; an evolutionary growth of organized mass energy in this infinite space. Therefore, one could conclude it is a natural condition that requires no explanations. It needs no creation, nor can it be destroyed, the universe is just what is seen, space and energy, it needs no excuse for living, it just is what it is. Like what God was to have said to Moses, I AM that I AM.
The world begins with the universal expansion of the spacetronic field, even in the area of the Milky Way. The first event is the accumulation of the energy envelopes, of contracted spacetrons surrounded by a field of expanded spacetrons. The law in force is the Law of Compensation, space for energy and energy for space. Energy is simply the pressure of the unit. The commencement of the spacetronic expansion on the whole along with the adiabatic energy exchange between the field creates the black body background radiation, the temperature of the universe astronomers are able to detect today, that has been traveling in this direction for the past 20 billions of years. The accumulation of energy envelopes are the many very faint radio signals Ryle found in the distant past, along with the few less dense strong radio signals indicating a less distant source. The quasars being the outcropping of these energy sources that eventually evolved into the galaxies seen today. Finally, looking into the universe, one sees the super-clusters of galaxies that forms the universe. A redshift is seen in the spectrum of distant celestial bodies caused by the slow expansion factor of the spacetronic field as the radiant energy passes through different time periods. Galaxies are not speeding away from the earth nor the earth from them, all move through the universe in harmony together. See Fig 32 also Fig 27
Click to continue