Einstein, having succeeded in developing his special theory of relativity and not being completely satisfied with the exclusion of accelerating inertial systems, went on to develop the general theory of relativity. Other physicist meanwhile developed quantum mechanics to account for the physical aspects of the newly discovered quantum fields. Einstein's general theory of relativity was devised while he was trying to understand the equality of inertial and gravitational mass. He starts out from a physical point of view of supposing a space completely devoid of matter or of electromagnetic field. In this space he proposes another reference system of space moving in uniform acceleration. It is not an inertial system; it is simply a moving space wherein a test mass would move with an acceleration independent of its physical significance. For instance, like a ball falling to the floor of a box being accelerated up into space that is far away from ponderable mass. He claims that this space cannot be distinguished from a gravitational field, it is equivalent to an inertial system. He extends this idea of the "principle of equivalence" to any relative motion of a reference system of four-dimensionally, non-linear transformation of the four co-ordinates corresponding to moving spaces. With the introduction of Riemann equations and conditions (tensor calculus) he describes in terms of functions of co-ordinates (Gik) the pure gravitational field by solutions of the gravitational equations. Einstein finally claims, like Descartes, there is no such thing as empty space, a space without a field; spacetime does not claim existence on its own, but only as a structural quality of the field. Einstein tried to conceive physical reality in the gravitational field equations of his general relativistic field theory, as described by the Minkowski's spacetime metric equations. He failed to do so, because he did not know, nor did he realize that space is quantized; and, each unit is in a state of expansion as spacetime proceeds, mass being a rotating energy of spacetronic motion.
Einstein was able to explain in great mathematical detail how mass affected spacetime, but in the final analyses he failed to explain why mass should affect spacetime. Just as Newton's model was unable to explain why mass should attract one another. Newton realized something was wrong with the idea of action at a distance without any intermediate intervention, for he said in affect, anyone in his right mind must realize there exist a fallacy, but he was unable to frame a hypothesis. Einstein didn't think about any intervening interference one way or another. He had already determined in his own mind that space was empty, and gravity was a spatial non-Euclidean condition of space, caused by the presence of mass. Because of this spatial condition the moon orbits the earth and the earth orbits the sun. Newton said that masses attract each another by a force that is proportional to the product of the gravitational mass of the two objects divided by the square of the distance between them. It is the simplest most uncomplicated statement one can make which enables calculating the force of what appears to be an attraction between two objects. It only says there is a force acting between the two objects; it does not say what that force is, or why there is a force between the objects in the first place. The force is entirely invisible, like Einstein's space with a ball in it, and according to Einstein's analysis, the force does not even exist if an object is all alone out in space far from ponderable mass in a box he is about to accelerate, until the box is accelerated. Nevertheless, even though Einstein says no gravitational force exists until an acceleration takes place, it does not mean that gravitation around the ball does not exist. Newton said; the gravitational mass is equal to the inertial mass, and Einstein agreed. A person must assume that even though no force is discernible it does not mean that it is not there. As a matter of fact, it is there, acting upon all the individual atoms, holding them together in molecular structures, which constitutes the object.
It only becomes detectable when that mass is acceleated. If an atom had flees and one jump up it would fall right back down again toward the center of the atom, onto its surface; the same with molecules. Regardless of an objects size, whether it be one atom or many atoms, it is the atoms that give an object its existence in the first place, and consequently, its inertial mass. From this idea, one must conclude along with Einstein and Newton, gravitational mass and inertial mass are one and the same thing. What is this force, this weight or inertia, that holds things together? Thinking of these as different properties of matter, are they really two different properties, or the same property expressed in different ways, depending on how they are measured? Physicist measures energy as being a particle in one determination, and as being a wave in another measurement. What is the correlation between these two measurements of gravity and inertia; this phenomena of nature?
Analyzing these conditions, gravitational mass measures the strength of a force by which one object attracts another . The misleading word in this statement is attracts. It must have grated on Einstein's nerves because he became upset with the idea that an inanimate thing could reach out across empty space and grasp another object and drag it toward itself. His solution was to suppose ponderable mass modified space in such a way as to have another object relatively close by, moving in a straight line, to follow a curved path toward its center or if its velocity was such, to follow a path around it; therefore, there was no attraction involved between objects, just modified spatial aspects. He went to great lengths to prove his point and finally did, with the aid of the tensor field theory.
What about inertia? Physicist say that inertial mass is the measurement of the resistance an object offers to a change in its state of motion. In the first place, according to Newton's laws, a body will not move on its own volition, it remains in a state of rest, if that be its state of being. This means that inanimate objects have no power to determine action on their own. It does not mean that an object has the power to resist action on its own, it simply means it cannot act on its own. Like the word attraction, resistancealso is an ambiguous word. It certainly can be misleading because inanimate objects have no power of their own to exercise any resistance, let alone resist action in the sense that they can strive against being moved; it simply means it takes power to move them.
Attraction and resistance, two words having ambiguous meanings, trying to describe two very important aspects of mass. If mass does not attract and does not resist, what do people really mean to be relating concerning the properties of mass using these ambiguous words? What in fact are these properties? Can these properties have anything to do with why it is difficult for one to view mass as both a particle and a wave? On second thought, is the so called attraction and resistance really properties of mass, or are they the result of some other phenomena of nature, for instance, some action emanating from space itself? When one ponders this question, "What in fact are the properties of mass that causes a person think that they exhibit attraction for one another, and resists being moved by one another?" A person is beset with prejudicial ideas they have been taught which makes them respond, "What do you mean, what does one mean? Every one knows what is meant." In reality, one never even thinks about what is meant, for they draw upon their bias opinions.
Einstein says that the moon is not attracted to the earth, it is simply moving in a straight line, even so, that straight line is a curved space, a geodesic. It is a line that bends around the earth. The solar system follows a geodesic around the center of the galaxy. Einstein claims that the sun distorts the space around it forming a deep well in space, therefore the earth, which would normally travel a straight line according to Newton's first law, follows the distorted line which is a geodesic around the sun. Its centrifugal force keeps it from falling into the well, created by the sun's distortion of the space which curves around it. Newton says that the sun and earth attract one another because mass attracts mass. The sun being a larger mass creates the greatest attraction, hence, the earth moves toward the sun. Furthermore, Newton claimed: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, therefore the earth, by exerting an opposite reaction rotates around the sun; centrifugal force is a fictitious notion. The Space Quantum Theory declares that the sun and earth are held together by the expansion pressure of the expanding space. Solar planets are being forced toward the sun by the expansion of the sun's surrounding spacetronic field which creates a tremendous pressure on to sun's gasses, causing them to fuse. Planetary centrifugal forces comes into play, the expansion force pushes them back, counterbalancing this effect, creating the geodesic orbit. The geometry of curved surfaces around mass, discovered by Einstein, is a natural phenomena caused by the expansion factor. The centrifugal force of the Earth follows the geodesic around the sun, according to the Gik equations of the tensor calculus theory that Einstein invented to explain the phenomena, however, the equation needs the expabsion factor. See Fig 21 -- below
For that matter, it can very well be that the centrifugal force of the vibrating nucleus creates the electric field, the positive, negative field due to the outward pressure created by a centrifugal force between the proton and the expanding spacetronic field. The field holding the unit in tact and feeding it the energy to move. The electron is maintained by the expanded spacetronic field resulting from the interplay between the two fields, which generates the magnetic flux. The neutron does not have this interplay because it is protected by the electric field of the proton against the expanding field and therefore it is a neutral energy. This of course is only speculation that needs investigation.
The neutron, outside of the nucleus of the atom, creates the electronic field in about 15 minutes by the interplay between it and the expanding spacetronic field, whereupon, it becomes a hydrogen atom. When the hydrogen atom looses its electron shield it becomes a positive ion, a compressed spacetronic well. This single proton lacks the energy to render it neutral against the surrounding expanding field, and it is what physicist call a positive electric charged field, a compressed spacetronic field. A free electron, an expanded spacetronic field, a negative charged field, when it comes close to the proton, it is pushed into the proton field and the both again become a hydrogen atom. A negative electric field, moving in a wire creates a current of electricity. (It is unfortunate that these fields were named in the reverse order of the actions they perform by Ben Franklin; the proton should have been the negative unit and the electron the positive unit, since it is the unit that causes things to happen, like electricity and lightning).
If, in reality, attraction and resistance are not the properties of mass, then, it must be the interplay of the forces of space holding mass in one place in space, relavive to all other mass, (realizing that the whole conlamerate of mass is in a constant motion throught the spacetronic field in the first place,) until and unless it is forced to move through space by an outside force, for instance, the collision with another mass units. If mass has no power to move on its own, and this goes for all mass, what produces the force that moves mass? The only other thing in existence besides mass and energy is space expansion energy, which brakes down into the impetus force that moves all energy and mass and the spacetronic pressure the holds all mass and energy together. Therefore, one must conclude that the impetus force created by the expansion of spaceis real, and that it is the moving force responsible for individual action of the mass an energy particles. The universal spacetronic expanding field not only creates mass, it also creates motion. It produce the impetus force which moves all energy while the expansion pressure maintains the unit as an integral entity! The phenomena one should be aware of is the fact that all things are in motion, in the first place. Motion in the continuum of the galaxy as it moves though the universe, motion in the Solar System, and motion of the earth. When a person considers all ramifications of motion taking place he must ask the question, if mass cannot move of its own volition, where does the motion come from? The answer simply is that it is created by spacetrons as they gives up energy in expanding. It is known that the universal space is in a state of expansion, in the first place, regardless of what one thinks; it is the cause of the redshift. It seems logical to assume that the force of gravity is the result of the space expansion factor, pushing mass together, since energy is given up in the process of space expansion. However, in order for space to have an affect on mass in its most elementary form, it must be ever so minutely quantized, as claimed by the Space Quantum Theory, the quantum of space being the spacetron.
In order to completely understand the principle of equivalence, we must recognize that the spacetronic field exists in unit quanta having extension, in a state of expansion and contraction, and as the distance measured between material bodies. Material bodies are made of contracted spacetronic strings held in sustained contractions by the impetus force. Further, these supported contracted strings of space quanta form material bodies, units of electromagnetic waves whoes motions rotate through the spacetronic field surrounding them. The expansion pressure through and around such mass bodies, both large and small, we called gravity. It is the spacetronic expansion pressure that binds mass together but it is the impetus force that moves objects toward the eath's surface. The binding pressure diminishes as the square of the distance between bodies, as they recede from one another. Objects in a spaceship in a state of acceleration, away from ponderable mass, feels this same force pressing them to the floor of the ship. SQT agrees with Newton's first law, that every body which is not subject to forces, moves along a straight line at a constant speed unless forced to do otherwise. The frame in which the body moves must be considered an inertial frame; that is, space is discernible by its forces and the dimensions existing between inertial bodies. The dimensionality can only be discernible, if permitted that the means by which it can recognize other inertial bodies, is by transferred energy generated between them. In this respect, since other inertial bodies are discerned by means of an electromagnetic energy, it must be assume that electromagnetic motion is of a constant of nature. This means that its velocity per second,is the same between inertial bodies, and that its measured motion is the same for all inertial frames. Assuming that the electromagnetic wave velocity is C, and is constant for all inertial frames, then, it is capable of being used to determine the distance between objects and particularly celestial objects. Thus, one is able to say, for instance, the sun is eight minutes away from earth since it takes light, which is one of the electromagnetic waves used to see it, needs eight minutes to travel the distance from the sun to the earth. Since light moves independent of its source, and is measured at the same specific rate of speed in vacuo between inertial forces, a person can discern the nature of space itself as being considered an inertial frame vibrating at C^2. This means that space is capable of receiving, transmitting, and giving up such independent energy, the same way mass is capable of receiving, utilizing, and giving up radiant energy. In this same manner, space is capable ofsupporting mass as an independent energy and transporting itthrough the spacetronic field.
Mass moves through the inertial frame of space by means of spacetronic energy, in relationship to other independent inertial mass observers. These other mass observers are being supported by this same spacetronic energy field that the Space Quantum Theory claims is the spacetronic force of expansion. It creates and maintains all mass and energy, in the first place, via the existence of the expanding space quanta. In this respect, one must consider space as a five dimensional lectromagnetic field that exists as a standing wave of quantized expansion pressure and force, existing around and between the masses. It vibrates at the speed of light squared, holding mass together by what can be term a high frequency energy, the impetus force acts below the atomic level of energy and expansion pressure acts above the atomic level of energy. The spacetronic field is also the vehicle of force that transmits all other electromagnetic waves between inertial masses.
One must, therefore, recognize that all physical laws must be expressed in forms which are necessarily independent of any coordinate frame of reference, by which physical space is defined. In other words, physical laws are identical for all inertial forces, therefore, all observers will be regarded as equivalent, and will arrive at identical conclusions by employing the same physical laws that concern the growth and developments of their inertial system. The fact that unified gravitational fields exist around all inertial systems, regardless of their size or motions, stems from the fact that the gyroscopic spasons, and, consequently, quarks, which form the hadrons, are supported and sustained by the universal spacetronic expanding field pressure and impetus force. Subsequently, any motion of an inertial system can be considered the motion produced by the impetus field, regardless of its size or shape. For instance, in a rocket ship away from ponderable mass, there exists in the space around the mass of the ship a gravitational field, and regardless of the ships motion it can be considered at rest in relationship to its gravitational field. As long as the ship remains unaccelerated, all the things not permanently attached to the ship will have an independent gravitational field, sharing the ships original motion into space. These items can consider themselves at rest in relationship with their own gravitational field. The expansion forces between loose items and the ship can be considered negligible. Take note that Newton's first law is in affect in this situation. Now suppose the ship to be accelerated and consider the rear of the ship to be the floor of a room. Under a condition of constant acceleration things not attached to the ship do not share the ships acceleration, and consequently, remain at rest in their own gravitational field. This is in accordance with Newton's first Law. As a consequence, and because the ship is accelerating, the loose things in the ship appear to fall to the floor, simultaneously. Items fall to the floor of the ship with a force equal to the mass of the falling object times the acceleration of the ship. This is in accordance with Newton's second law. Take note that Newton's third law is in affect due to the rockets rearward thrust relative to the forward motion of the ship. Now suppose a rope hangs from the ceiling of the room and hooked to the end of this rope is a 10 pound weight; the rope becomes taut. The magnitude of the tension on the rope equals the mass, which equals 10 pounds times the acceleration of the ship. Again Newton's second law. F = M A So one understands the situation, suppose there is another 5 pound weight hooked to another rope hanging from the ceiling of the room. There is less tension on this second rope than there is on the first, meaning that the tension on the rope equals 5 pounds times the acceleration of the ship. Consequently, one is aware of the fact that the tension on the rope depends on the quantity of mass that hangs on the hooks at the ends of the ropes. The force creating the tension on the ropes is equal to the weight of the objects hooked to the ends of the ropes, times the acceleration of the ship. F = M A Now, the two weights are unhooked, and held at the same level above the floor before letting them go. As soon as they are released they become independent items, not sharing in the acceleration of the ship. They both appear to drop to the bottom of the room striking the floor, simultaneously. Even though their weights are different, they appear to fall to the floor at the same time. Accually they do not fall rather the accelerating ship moves up to the free floating objects. Nonetheless, one could just as well imagine that the ship is at rest, hovering above the earth, and that the tension on the ropes equals the mass, times the acceleration of the gravitational field. The force of the gravitation holds all molecules together on the earth, which impresses all individual items toward the center of the earth. Of course, one should realize that it is the universal spacetronic expanding field's impetus force that creates the motion, and, therefore, the force of the gravational field of the earth, in the first place. One must conclude that the inertial mass of the objects in the experiment, meaning their resistance to motion is caused by the expanding field's pressure, holding them in place. The tension on the ropes in the space ship is created by the force of the ship's acceleration times the inertia of the mass, this inertia is generated by the expansion pressure, while the ship is in space away from the earth. This same tension on the ropes is created by the gravitational force while the ship hovers above the earth, again the force is generated by the corresponding expansion and impetus force. The identical condition creates a similar effect on earth as in space. The fact that items fall to the floor of the ship, simultaneously, whether or not the ship is accelerated in space or resting on earth tells us that the force of acceleration is the same as the force of gravity, proving the principle of equivilence. The important idea to realize concerning the SQT is that in both cases it is the expansion of the space of the universe that creates the effect on the items in both cases. Restraining them in creating their inertia mass on the ship in space due to the expansion pressure, then creating their weight or heaviness, when the ship accelerates. When the ship is hovering above the earth, the gravitational force is respancible, such force generated by the expansion and impetus force of the spacetronic field. However, when the objects are released in the ship on earth, it is the impetus force generated by the spacetronic expansion that forces the objects to the floor. This force is applied individually to the spasons at the core of the objects,therefore, regarless of their different weights both objects are forced to the floor simaltainiosly.
The SQT requires an adjustment to Mach's Principle, since it is not only the large-scale distribution of mass, per se, that controls the dynamics of the universe and its affect on local physical motions; it is the expansion of the space quanta whose expansion really controls the dynamics of physical phenomena. Regardless, it must be admitted that the wide-scale distribution of mass does play an important roll, however. The contraction of the space quanta which forms the galaxies in the clusters, facilitates in permitting this expansion process to take place; that is, through the quid pro quo relationship between the contraction of the quanta forming galactic nuclei and the expansion of the space quanta that creates the impetus force. One must, therefore, recognize that in a round about way the principle does aid local gravitational affects, not due to any attracting force of galaxies, rather, it aids in the dynamic expansion forces of space itself. This idea is reiterated in order to bring forth the idea that electromagnetic hot spots, quasars, and galaxies that exist vast distances away from earth, are not rushing away due to the expansion of the universe; any more than the Milky Way is moving away from them at those fantastic speeds. People on those galaxies would have to conclude, the Milky Way is moving away from them at those fantastic speeds, also, since they must receive the Milky Way's star light with the same redshift. Once the true cause of the redshift is learned, then, the realization that these units are not rushing away from one another with speeds approaching the speed of light, can be comprehend. If it were true that the far off units are rushing away at a speed almost reaching the speed of light, determined by the redshift reckoning, then, as they look back toward the Milky Way, they too would have every right to say that it is this galaxy that is speeding away from them, since the laws of physics applies to all observers in the same manner. Therefore, one must look for another reason why a person sees a redshift in the light coming from those distant units.
It is the loss of the energy of the universal spacetronic expanding field in the adiabatic process, due to the expansion factor of the field, which spreads out the wavelength over a period of time, giving a redshift to the light coming from those distant celestial units, according to the SQT. The greater the distance away, which is to say the longer that light travels in time, the greater the redshift that occurs in the light wave, since the loss to the field becomes greater as time goes on. The build up of the background noise indicating a temperature of 3 K is the result of this loss of energy to the field, also, supposing that before the beginning of time the fields temperature was 0-degree K. This brings up an interesting point. The universe must exist in an electromagnetic sea that absorbs and reflects energy back into the field, hence, the microwave background noise heard in the radio. What this really means is that infinity acts as a buffer which neutralizes all the various electromagnetic waves not absorbed by any other method that emanates from all the galaxies in the universe, in other words it is the temperature of the universe!
Cosmology is the investigation and study of
the universe as a whole. It deals with the discovery and motion of celestial
units as gleaned with various optical and radio instruments employed in these
investigations. As a person looks out into the universe they should become
cognizant of the fact that they are looking back into the past times of the
universe, and from all indications mass is an evolving happening in the cosmos
in which the features have changed over billions of years. Cosmologists have
become aware that the creation must have developed in stages, to have arrive in
the present state of being. From all indications, as well as reasonable
considerations, the way nature operates, one is persuaded that the universe, as
seen today, had a beginning. This is not to say that some other types or kind of
universe does not exist or did not exist before this one came into being,
nonetheless, from this experiment, if one wants to view the universe that way,
it does appear the universe did have a beginning. Cosmologist calculate this
beginning to have occurred 20 billion of years ago and has gradually evolved
from radiant energy to mass.
It is still debatable as to how the universe came into being. Did God create it in seven days? Did it start with a Big Bang? Has it always existed as is suppose by the Study State Theory? This theory proposes that new galaxies come into being, as mass is generated, somehow, between galaxies, in empty space, that coalesced to form new ones. Then one might ask the question, what existed before the beginning? Man has speculated about the answer to these questions for many years. From the investigations of the cosmos today with sophisticated instruments, many of the observed features of the universe can be resolved by generating models, using Newtonian theory of gravity, assuming that space is Euclidean, and, therefore, infinite in extension. Then again the universe can be constructed in accordance with Riemannian geometry which Einstein used in generating his theory of gravity. It is a model of the cosmos that has non-Euclidean curvature dominated by the gravitational makeup of the galaxies of the universe after the fashion of Mach's principle which along with the principle of equivalence influenced Einstein's ideas when he developed his General Relativity Theory.
The model of the universe called the Steady-State theory is based upon what is termed the perfect cosmological principle. It treats the galaxies as a cosmic gas and assumes no privileged observers. In other words, all observers see the same large-scale process of the evolution of the universe at all times. For this to be the case one must suppose an expanding cosmos, assumed because of the redshift. It requires that mass be created between galaxies which takes the place of those units in the galactic gas that escapes into infinity. This cosmic model was discarded as not in accordance with observation when the microwave background radiation was discovered. This discovery caused astronomers to favor the theory that the universe started off with a Hot Big Bang and has since expanded and cooled down to the 2.7 degree K temperature, indicated by the background noise discovered by radio astronomers.
The Perfect Cosmic Principle became simply the Cosmic Principle which assumes no privileged observers. Observers moving with the galactic gas, see the same large-scale cosmic processes. However, in rejecting the Steady State Theory one can then speculate on cosmic time. How old is the universe? How did it begin, and what were the evolutionary stages it has gone through? It is apparent the cosmic sphere seen is either closed or open. One is confronted with both of these possibilities. Can cosmic time ever actually be measure in any sensible way? Cosmologist have determined the possible age of the earth and have even determined, somewhat, an idea of the age of the galaxy, but what about the cosmos as a whole. In this respect they must rely on the light and electromagnetic waves radiating from the distant electromagnetic hot spots, quasars and galaxies they are able to detect that was created and developed in the pasts eras of the universe.
Scientist know that electromagnetic waves travel with a specific rate of speed from any emitter of radiant energy, hence, it is an indicator of past times from which they can determine how long the light has traveled from any one emitter, providing they can calculated the distance. Cosmologist seem to think that the redshift is caused by the expansion of the universe and that galaxies are rushing away, carried off with the expanding space. Thus, if they can correlate distance using the redshift, then, they should be able to determine the age of the era in which various celestial units existed. Is this the true picture of the cosmos or is there another scenario one may develop that can be more reasonable, since under an expanding universe, as now thought, galaxies are falling away from the Milky Way, and it from them, at fantastic speeds; the furthermost units must move as fast, if not faster than the speed of light that relativity prohibits.
The universal cosmic scale was first developed by Hubble and the scale factor is called Hubble's constant. At that time it was thought the universe of galaxies was static. Hubble then discovered that light coming from distant celestial objects were showing a redshift in their spectrum, To him it indicated objects were moving away, the further away they are, the faster they moved. It involves the idea that the redshift of the light coming from distant galaxies is an indication of a Doppler Shift due to their receding motions. V = H r V equals the velocity of the galaxy, H is Hubble's constant, r is the distance away the celestial unit exists.
If galaxies are speeding away from one another due to the expansion of the cosmos; it is only logical to assume, at one time, they must have been crowded into a very small area, and thus, existed as a very high thermal energy. This gave rise to the idea that the universe began with a Hot Big Bang. Therefore, it is concluded that the primordial nucleosynthesis created nuclei of protons and neutrons, being combined into hydrogen with a helium abundance of about 25% in about 20 min. After 100,000 yrs. galaxies formed; they began to recede from one another as the expansion of the space continued. The discovery of the microwave background radiation was a clinching factor for many cosmologist in embracing the Hot Big Bang theory. Recent detailed calculations of the microwave back-ground radiation, and other factors, ruled out this straightforward picture, therefore, modifications are needed.
The Space Quantum Theory deals with a radical fundamental idea of the makeup of the universe. The most radical change comes from the basic premise that space is not a void, which means empty, destitute, without content, because the theory turns that notion completely around. Although it admits space to be a vacuum, meaning that its construction is radically different than the construction of mass, nevertheless, it maintains that space is an integral part of the energy scale, and in fact, is electrodynamic in nature. Its basic concept states that space is quantized; furthermore, its energy is equal to the speed of light squared and vibrates with the speed of light in all directions. In addition, each unit is capable of more expansion and contraction than its vibratory action indicates. Space is a very dynamic body of energy that generates world mass, neutrons , protons, electrons and the electromagnetic energy. The spacetronic expanding fields generates pressure, the gravitational force, which holds world mass together and the impetus force that moves mass.
The manner in which the expanding field operates is not at all as complicated as one would expect. It seems that some time ago, about 20 billions of years or more, and for what ever reason, one can only guess, the units of space commenced to expand. Now, since space was completely filled with units in a state of random vibration, which units maintain their individual sphere of influence judiciously, in order for this expansion to take place, some space units necessarily had to give way and contract. It was and is a quid pro quo proposition. Those that expanded, which was the majority, was able to occupy more space than they were entitled to occupy by the "law of equilibrium". So as a matter of compensation for giving up space, those contracted units gained the energy from the expended units which used this energy to expand. This is called the spacetronic law of compensation. By the law of least resistance the energy of those contracted units migrated into pockets. It should be understood that spacetrons do not move from place to place. It is the compressional energy that moves through the spacetronic field as Maxwell's four electromagnetic equations profess. These energies congested into pockets; spacetronic motions forming electromagnetic whirlpools These nuclei, in time, further developed and began to radiate energy. Radio astronomers are able to pick up these radiations that have been traveling through the expanse of the spacetronic field for billions of years. Finally, these radiating envelopes of energy developed into the quasars and galaxies seen today in the near and distant expanse.
In regards to the expansion factor, one must come to grips with the idea that these pockets, as well as the quasars and galaxies they developed into, are not speeding away. In other words, it is important to realize the universe is in a state of equilibrium. This condition exists, because as the space units expand, space units contract. The spacetronic field remains in equilibrium with mass. The energy that is created by the expansion of the universal spacetronic field is simply the impetus energy field. This energy develops the spasonic field that gyrates around a central point and radiates energy out from this central point. The development of these spasonic units into mass, forming quarks, then neutrons, and finally proton-electron pairs, was simply the outgrowth of the electromagnetic envelopes that occurred in the beginning. The photons and neutrinos carry back to the spacetronic field those created energies given up in the process of mass consolidation and or energy in the radioactive decay process. Photon and neutrino energy that is not absorb by the system forms the microwave background in the adiabatic process of the universe. See Fig 18.
Of course there is always the possibility that there never was a beginning of the expansion factor, as far as infinite space is concerned. If the expansion and contraction scenario is assumed to be a natural condition of space, as it has always existed, in this eventuality, the universe has always existed. This eliminates the concerned about how the spacetronic field began to expand, or even why it did begin to expand in the first place; it is just the natural way space exists. Mass being a natural outgrowth of the expansion of space. However, the universe from all appearances had a beginning.
The spacetronic field vibrates with an energy of the speed of light squared, (5.6095 x 10^35 eV) or 9 x 10 ^16, and by dividing Planck's constant h, which is 6 x 10 ^-34 into that figure one arrives at the frequency of the space quantum, 1.5 x 10 ^50 (designated i*). Dividing this figure into the speed of light, 3 x 10 ^8, one arrives at the wavelength of the spacetron which is 2 x 10 ^-42, the scale being in meters (designated i^). Maxwell's equations defines the speed of light as being the square root of the two space factors, e m. However, if both sides are squared to eliminate the square root one finds that together the space factors equals the speed of light squared, therefore, one has this conformation that the spacetrons vibrate with the speed of light squared from Maxwell's equations, its elasticity factor. C^2 = em The equations follow this pattern:- Planck's equation,
E = h f; Einstein's equation, E = MC^2; Maxwell's equation, C^2 = em. C^2 in the last equation equals the energy of the spacetronic field. The C ^2 in Einstein's equation is also the field energy. As said above, the spacetronic's field energy divided by Planck's constant equals the space quantum frequency, C^2 = h i*. By substituting Plank's equation and the space quantum equation into Einstein's equation a significant fact reveals itself.
E = M C^2 h f = M h i* h f / h i* = M f / i* = M
The frequency of any real particle divided by the space quantum frequency equals its mass.
The energy of mass in Einstein's equation times the wavelength of the mass equals I. I = Ew
The constants, h C = I. However, the impetus force comes from two directions, one of expansion - designated I~^, the other one of contraction - designated I~* Both are constants.
If a person takes a piece of matter and continually divides it they ultimately will find that it is composed of identical units called molecules. "What are molecules made of?" It seems that the simplest thing to do would be to take a molecule of matter, and further cut it up into little pieces, then look at one of its pieces; however, that is where the problem lies. The molecules are so small it is impossible to see them with the naked eye. A person sees things by reflecting light off the object; but the light wave is so large in comparison to the tiny molecule, it simply raps around it. The molecule is invisible to light. One needs to bounce electrons off the molecule in order to see it; and, this is done with an electron microscope. In doing this it is found that the molecule is not the last bit of divisible matter. What is barely seen is the molecular's individual atoms. There are 92 natural elements that form molecules. The differing elements are composed of the various atoms. However, for anyone to see inside an atom one needs a different instrument than the electron microscope. The equipment needed to see inside an atom is called a particle accelerator. The first accelerators were the natural occurring radioactive substances. Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand-born physicist in 1906, used the alpha particle to bombard thin gold leaf. Behind the gold leaf was a photographic plate. From these experiments he was able to determine that the atom has a very small nucleus of positive energy. Using high powered electron accelerators, it has since been learned that the nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. These units form the nucleus of the atom. Around this nucleus swarm a group of units which are called electrons. Electrons are negative electromagnetic forces that cannot further be decomposed.
This is not true of the neutron or the proton. These units called hadrons can be sent crashing into one another by man made accelerators whereby they brake up to form heavier hadrons. These units immediately decompose into the stable units of neutrons, protons, and electrons. The hadrons are not the last word in the chain of decomposition for they brake down further into units called quarks. Quarks are the current limit of mass that can be resolved, unfortunately, they cannot be detected outside the hedron. By putting electrons and quarks together in various combinations nature has built the infinite variety of forms, substances and even life upon the earth. Quarks have not been detected outside the confines of the hadrons, where they hang together in an electromagnetic bag; even they are suspected of being composed of layers of some type of substance. The SQT proposes that quarks are composed of sting units called spasons. The Space Quantum Theory enters the scenes of the scenario of dimensional mass and tries to see inside of the quark for the further definition of mass. See Fig 10
The following chart gives the run down of the spacetronic frequencies of all the various energy fields, cosmic, mass and electromagnetic. It gives the basic frequencies in cycles per second and the wavelength in meters.
Spacetron.............1.5-10 ^50..............2-10 ^ -42
Spason string..............10 ^44...............10 ^ -36
Spason Field...............10 ^33...............10 ^ -25
...........................10 ^30...............10 ^ -22
Cosmic rays................10 ^28...............10 ^ -20
Quark......................10 ^27...............10 ^ -19
Proton, Neutron............10 ^24...............10 ^ -16
Nucleus....................10 ^23...............10 ^ -15
Gamma rays.................10 ^22...............10 ^ -14
Atom-Electron..............10 ^18...............10 ^ -10
X-Ray......................10 ^16...............10 ^ - 8
Molecule...................10 ^15...............10 ^ - 7
Ultra-Violet...............10 ^15...............10 ^ - 7
Visible light..............10 ^14...............10 ^ - 6
Infra-Red..................10 ^12...............10 ^ - 4
FM..TV..AM.................10 ^ 8....10 ^ 7....10 ^ 6
Alternating Current........60 Cycle/sec
There are basically two types of energy, transitory radiation, such as the electromagnetic phenomena, for instance, light, radio waves, heat, and the like; then there is potential, or rotatory energy or stationary oscillating energy, such as matter, which is composed of molecules. While matter may seem to be stationary, actually, the molecules of which it is composed, are little wheels of rotational energy vibrating against each other. It seems that nature has put all things together in the form of wheels of rotatory energy. The whole universe is composed of super-galactic clusters that wheel around in what seems like infinite space. The galaxy itself is a huge wheel made up of, from super-giant red stars to tiny dwarf yellow, blue, and white stars. The yellow star, the sun, is the hub of the solar wheel and even the earth can be thought of as the earth-moon wheel.
The vibrating molecules of which the earth is made brake down into smaller wheel like units, atoms, whose electrons can jump from orbit to orbit giving off the electromagnetic radiation seen as light. The atomic nuclei, whose neutrons and protons vibrate and orbit in various configurations, form a type of wheel. The neutron and proton, whose tri-quark composition, whirl around in quivering motions, emulating a wheel, lastly spasons are thought to be gyroscopes. The Space Quantum Theory looks inside the quarks and sees the spason as a wheel composed of strings of contracted vibrating spacetrons, spasonic energy gyrating around in wheeling fashion, even the units of space itself can be thought of as wheels of motion vibrating in every conceivable direction imaginable. The smaller the system of energy the greater is its scale of vibratory action and consequently the greater is its order of electron-volt (ev) which is the unit used to measure the energy of mass. Particle accelerator devices are measured in electron-volts. The scale factor goes up to thousands and even to hundreds of millions of electron-volts. When the strongly interacting particles, such as neutrons and protons, are bombarded with beams of particles, they can be excited into hadrons of short lived detectable resonance states, just as nuclei, atoms, or molecules, are able to be excited to detectable high resonance states of being with the use of lasers. These hadrons are measured in the billions of electron-volts. They are created by smashing streams of protons and antiprotons into one another, which is the same as saying physicist smash beams of quarks and antiquarks into each other using high magnetic accelerators. These colliding units are found at CERN, the European Center for Nuclear Research in Geneva. Mook 197 & 410
........Hadrons...................Electromafnetic Waves ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sigma.............................Tau................Photons (light waves)
Omega................................................FM TV AM .................................Davies 424
The above particles with the exception of the proton, neutron, electron and neutrino are all unstable and brake down into those capable of being detected in a "bubble-chamber".
This action of creating short lived hadrons with greater mass than the proton and neutron is good reason for believing in the spasonic makeup of the quark. These hadrons act in every way as the naturally made hadrons with the exception of their mass. Spasons create the mass of quarks, so the colliding spasons of the quarks momentarily assemble into these heavy units. See Fig 22 below
Many other known particles belong to a category called "resonances". They live for a considerably shorter time, decaying after a few particle seconds (10^23 seconds), so that they can never travel farther than a few times their size. This means they cannot be seen in the bubble-chamber; their existence can only be inferred indirectly. The particles listed above in the table are the only ones that can be tracked in bubble-chamber pictures. All these particles can be exchanged as virtual particles; and, they all can be created in the collision processes in the four interaction strength categories; gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and finally week interactions.
In the macroscopic world one finds the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions; in the microscopic world physicist find the strong and week interactions. The leptons are involved in the second and fourth type of hadron interactions, the electromagnetic and the week interaction. They are called the week interaction, but they cause strong decaying actions due to the expansion factor of the spacetronic field which possibly eliminates old atoms, and or those atoms that are overweight according to the Space Quantum Theory. The reason the so called week force and electromagnetic force seems able to unit in one theory is, for the simple reason, that they both arise from the same cause, only from different directions. The electromagnetic force is derived from the spacetronic energy impinging upon the atom; and, this is due to space expansion, on the outside directed inwardly. The week force is also derived from this same space expansion, but not from the outside expanding inwardly, rather, from the inside expanding outwardly. Since the atom is composed mostly of an expanded spacetronic field, each atom of every element has its own particular modulating state of equilibrium relative to its internal and the surrounding spacetronic field impinging upon its spasonic fields. Any absorbed energy jumps electrons to a higher energy state of being, consequently, the energy is automatically expelled as quickly as the atom can manage the action which is determined by what caused the excitement in the first place, be it radiant or mechanical energy. The electrons orb of the atom expands and contracts depending on the amount of energy it receives or gives up, thus, maintaining its equilibrium state. In this manner the atom maintains its state of being as it passes through the surrounding spacetronic field. The expelled energy moves independently through the spacetronic field modulating the path it travels according to its energy.
In order to understand radioactivity and what causes atoms to be radioactive, one must first understand why the atom needs neutrons in its nucleus in the first place. If it were not for the neutrons in the nucleus of the atom, the evolution above the hydrogen atom could not exist. The hydrogen atom consists of an electric charge, the positive proton and a negative charge, the electron, that orbits the proton. Like charges repel one another, unlike charges attract each other. Therefore, the hydrogen atom is neutrally charged since it has both charges rendering the unit electrically neutral. Supplying neutrons to the atom is natures way of causing the protons to stick together, since protons electrically repel one another. If a number of protons were somehow forced to form a nucleus it wouldn't be long before they would tear the nucleus apart because protons naturally repel each other since they have like electric charges. By supplying neutrons to the nucleus of the atom, nature furnishes a stronger spacetronic force to the nucleus. The expansion energy needed to hold the neutrons together, automatically gives added strength to the nuclear force. This acts as a neutralizing effect overcoming the electrically charged repulsive force of the protons. Of course, it takes a tremendous force to get the protons and neutrons together in the first place. This force is furnished by the galactic center and in massive stars. In the nucleus of the galactic center spasons are created and assemble into quarks which are assembled into neutrons. The neutrons are then ejected out of the central position and the process repeats itself. Hence neutrons are constantly pouring out of the center of the galaxy. As the neutrons migrate out into the surrounding spacetronic field they begin to expand setting up a proton-electron pair, creating a mixture of proton-electron pairs and neutrons. The proton and electron together form the hydrogen atom. Some neutrons, instead of splitting up, assemble with the proton forming a nucleus of atoms named deuterium. The clouds of atoms that circle the galactic nucleus are subjected to electromagnetic pressures from excited atoms near the galactic center. Due to these pressures, two of the hybrid hydrogen atoms can now be forced together to form the helium atom. However, it has recently been determined that there is a greater number of deuterium atoms associated with the galactic nucleus then was once thought. Eventually these gasses pour out of the center of the galaxy and form huge clouds. The expansion pressures of the expanding spacetronic field is now called gravitational pressures. A nucleus of hydrogen and deuterium atoms, due to this pressure, begin to burn creating other helium. This burning action causes huge quantities of energy to be released that pour out in all directions, light, heat and other electromagnetic waves, and a star is born. After a period of time the burning process continues to use up the hydrogen and the hot helium core builds up. Greater pressures are exerted on the center of the star causing helium to burn, forming higher orders of elements. These higher orders of elements burn and layers of elements build up. The process continues until finally the star explodes, spreading these created elements throughout the galaxy. They in tern assemble into other stars. The sun being one of the stars that created the solar system, and finally the earth.
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