The Milky Way galaxy shows signs of being a mass generator. There is evidence that huge quantities of atoms of hydrogen are swirling around the nucleus, as are various kinds of other atoms and molecules. No doubt, the vast majority are hydrogen atoms; that form the stars. This evidence indicates that hydrogen atoms are generated in the nucleus forming clouds, about 25% coalesce forming helium, both are coalesced by the compressional effect of the expanding field into the stars of the Galaxies. Stars in turn generate higher orders of atomic mass by the internal spacetronic pressures that builds up and forces hydrogen atoms to combine; they create helium. Helium burning stars create all the other elements found on earth. It is thought by some cosmologist, a black hole exist in the center of quasars, which can be the first stages of the creation of neutrons that split to form atoms. Some small stars, called white dwarfs, become so compressed, having densities of ten tons per cubic inch, radiate all of their heat into space and fade into darkness; perhaps also into black holes. Other large stars generate so much heat and energy that they collapse in a catastrophic event, which blows them apart. The exploding star, called a supernova, spray their heavy elements throughout the Galaxy. These, in turn, form other stars like the sun that produced the earth, in which all those other created elements are found. In turn, the earth generates the molecules of life creating all the wonderful things upon it.
Even inner galactic space is strewn with hydrogen clouds that spawn new stars, giving evidence to an evolutionary trend of mass and energy. The Universal spacetronic field holds all matter together and feeds the galaxies new energy in order to create more hydrogen. The very fact that hydrogen is used up, burned up in the creation of new stars, requires a source, a process whereby new hydrogen can be generated. This makes the idea of galaxies, as mass generators, very viable; and the primary cause of events, the expansion of space, as set forth by the SQT. The Big Bang cannot supply this requirement very succinctly, since it starts out with all energy in a single unit, the singleton. Some think that even void space needed to be created for its energy to propagate into, which is beyond the mind to conceive. It only works with mathematics, which only requiring logical reasoning. Even the great mathematician Einstein was reluctant to accept the tenants of the Big Bang. It was necessary to conceive such an idea since the Doppler Effect indicated that these distant units were all moving apart. No one thought of a different reason for the redshift. The Space Quantum Theory requires this redshift to occur since the time dilation of space effects the electromagnetic wave passing through it, spreading out its wave form. The spacetronic "Law of Compensation" requires a stable universe in equilibrium. Descartes said, there is no such thing as independent empty space, space is the extension of mass. The SQT turns that statement around and says, there is no such thing as independent mass, mass is space in a state of compression, forming spacetronic waves, held in that state of being by the universal spacetronic expanding field. (USEF)
There are four recognized fundamental forces of nature:- the Weak, the Strong, the Electromagnetic, and the Gravitational force. These four forces are facilitated by energy fields called bosons. There are four fundamental units of mass in nature that the four forces control: the Spason, Quark, Atom, and Molecule, in that order. These mass units are formed basically from spacetrons, the space quanta which, in fact, we call space. The SQT claims the fourth force, gravity, is created by the expansion factor. According to the SQT the first three force fields are generated by the Impetus force, I, which force is created by the expansion factor, the expansion pressure itself is responsible for gravity. The Impetus force is also responsible for the motion of energy and mass. The theory claims that all of the four force fields are created by the expansion factor, each dominating their own domain. While all mass units and their forces are spacetronic waves operating at the speed of light or below, all other spacetronic units vibrate in all directions at the speed of light, i.e., with the speed of light squared, creating a standing wave vibrating field. The expansion pressure of the spacetronic field operates on molecules, grouping them together by what we call the gravitational force. This force is simply the expansion pressure that operates throughout the whole universal field, and through all mass and energy, moving mass together in its wake. The impetus field generated by the expansion factor is the creative force of the universe that operates as universal energy superstrings.
Is there an experiment that would lend credibility to the spacetronic superstring scenario? Yes, it has to do with the EPR paradox. EPR standing for Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen who formulated it to show a flaw in quantum mechanics. The enigma still remains. It seems that when a certain particle disintegrates its parts fly off in opposite directions. The Classical view is that the two particles know their exact direction and orientation at each instant of time. This is not in agreement with quantum mechanics. The Quantum view states that between the moment of disintegration and the moment of detection, no direction or orientation can be assigned to the particles. Experiments prove the Quantum view to be correct. Excited calcium atoms produce two photons, let us say a yellow and blue one. These two particles fly off from their source in opposite directions at the speed of light, because of their former electromagnetic relationship they stay in similarly oriented with one another, simply because they were associated with the same "Universal String", as predicted by the Space Quantum Theory. Their continuum are phase related and remain that way due to the universal superstring they are modulating until they are detected. Because they are riding on the same "Cosmic Spacetronic String" their phase-relationship correlates. Their motions are not only relative, but when one is detected to be in a particular direction and orientation, the other soul-mate unit will immediately imitate the same opposite orientation it had before they were separated. The communication existing between each other is instantaneously knowledgeable, because the vibrations of the universal string they are riding on instantaneously correlates their energies. It should be noted, this superstring, maintains a standing vibration at C squared, stretches from one end of the universe to the other. The units are moving away from one another in opposite directions on that string at the speed of light, which constitudes a hidden variable, . Regardless of how far away they move from each other, as long as neither one is intercepted or detected, their modulations are finitely phase related via the cosmic spacetronic string. See fig 12 below
As a matter of fact, all electromagnetic waves that leave their origin of emission, become independent of that source, while moving away along a string, the wave maintains an integral orientation toward that unit, and in such a manner that an observation of that origin can be recovered billions of years later, regardless of what direction away from the observer the celestial object happens to be.. It is this superstring that gets bent out of a straight line path close to the sun, which becomes noticeable when star light passes close by the sun. Even the light of a quasar can get intercepted and focused upon the earth appearing to be two identical quasars on each side of a galactic lens. They appear with the same redshift that differs from the intercepting galactic field of influence, because the light from the quasar left that source, perhaps, a billion light years ago. See Fig 13 below.
If one can comprehend the orbital motion of the earth around the sun according to the SQT, then, one can understand all relative gravitational affects between celestial objects. All mass causes the spacetronic field to bend around it. The pressure of the expanding field impinges upon a mass from every direction, causing each mass unit to have a common center of gravity. The gravitational field strength decreases as it ascends from that center out to infinity. Therefore, every unit of mass can consider itself to be an individual center relative to infinity.
Associated mass and energy are impelled toward a common center that exists between them. The earth is actually gravitating toward the common center that exists between it and the sun; due to the earth's speed in its orbit around the sun, it follows the geodesic which the sun's mass sets up in that field.
Likewise, the moon orbits the earth in the same manner. The gravitational effect between the moon, sun and earth causes the tides . See fig 14 below
The galaxies seen in the local part of the universe began as an electromagnetic pocket of energy in the infinite spacetronic field billions of years ago. This is known because radio astronomers report this is what they see when they look out into the universe and calculate the time that the detected signal left its source. By the same token, those same radio pockets are now galaxies, much like the local ones; and likewise, when they look back in time, in our direction, they see the Milky Way as it was when it existed as a radio pocket billion of years ago. One should now realize that those same galaxies can look in the opposite direction. What does you think they will see? -- Yes, more galaxies and in the distance, radio pockets in the process of becoming galaxies like their own. This gives the reason for believing that the universe is shaped like a donut, and the gigantic void may be part of the center of the torus.
This brings up an interesting point about the energy intercourse between galaxies. The fact that galaxies can be seen by their light, created in a different spacetime than the present time, it makes a difference when comparing their light spectrum with those of similar atoms.. When the spectrums from the light of atoms in the local spacetime continuum, are compared with spectrums of light of the same atoms from other galaxies not in this cluster, created in a different spacetime billions of years ago, there is a definite redshift in the their spectrum of light by comparison. This condition is due to the expansion of universal space.
As spacetime unfolds creating mass in the galaxies, the field units slowly expand exchanging energy for space; mass is created in the galaxies, due the law of compensation. Wherefore, the light energy wavelength is spread out as it passes through space. In the SQT concept, galaxies are not speeding away from one another with almost the speed of light, which sounds preposterous according to Einstein's relativity theory; the redshift is caused by the expansion of space as it creates mass in galactic centers.
See Fig 15 and fig 16 that graphically shows the galactic space-time-energy field as space expands creating more mass in the center of celestial units in the one graph. The other graph shows the space-time-energy field as that field is modulated by the electromagnetic wave. The spacetronic field is in a state of expansion at the very core of the atomic structure. The expansion of the field coalesces atoms to form stars due to its pressure and decays heavy atoms due to its expansion an the atomic level. The expansion pressure coalesces molecules that combine to form the earth and the other planets in the solar system.
Einstein's general relativity equations were given solutions by Alexander Friedmann, Howard P. Robertson and Arthur Walker. They are called FRW solutions. FRW assumes three different homogeneous and isotropic three-dimensional space continuum. There is one of infinite hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature, in which the sum of the angles of a triangle is less than 180 degree. Another one indicates a finite space of positive constant curvature, whose sum of the angles in the triangle is more than 180 degrees. Then there is the infinite flat space in which the sums of a triangle add up to 180 degrees, with which all are familiar, the Euclidean space. The SQT favors Euclidean expanding inter-galactic space and non-Euclidean contracting space within the galaxy, both acting together. This expanding space, as explained before, creates pockets of energy which radiates electromagnetic waves of energy between each another; hence, aiding one another in the evolutionary build up of compressed spacetronic waves. These waves coalesce to form vibrating spasons. Spasons are gyroscopic units assembled into what are call quantum field particles, quarks, that act as a quantized mass which form neutrons. These neutron field units decay to form proton-electron pairs; that is, conglomerates of mass forming atoms that in turn form quantized matter, molecules. Molecules, of course, form the earth. A spacetronic force that facilitates in holding the field together acts at each quantum field level.
A spason field is created and maintained by the basic superstring expanding spacetronic field force, called the impetus force which superstring force acts as a guiding wave for energy and mass. The field is weak because the expanding superstring of spacetrons are meeting head on, thus, creating three contracted strings called a spason. It is this field that becomes so weak, due to the expansion factor, that decay radiation occurs in the heavy atoms. Since spacetrons can not be destroyed there is a limit to the amount of compression spacetrons are capable of absorbing. When this limit is reached the three resulting strings that form the spason absorbs further energy by gyrating in a spacetronic field of motion. The spacetrons do not change places, the circular motion performed is by means of expansion and contraction of the spacetrons of the spason field. Three spasons form a quark. Three quarks form a hadron. The hadrons (neutrons and protons) are held together by the strong spacetronic field force, even though the pressures are finitely spread out, they are strong at these compressed nuclear positions. The atoms that associate together to form molecules are held together in molecular structures by the spacetronic electromagnetic field force, the nucleus positive and the electron negative. Molecules are held together by the spacetronic expansion pressure we call gravity, which is the ultimate impetus of the spacetronic field force that, due to its wide application, is by far the weakest of all the spacetronic field forces.
Each mass unit, as it vibrates, radiates energy between one another. In the Weak Field the energy is called W and Z units. In the Strong Field they are called gluons because they are thought of as gluing the protons and neutrons together, since protons normally repels one another outside of the nucleus. Around the nucleus is found leptons (electrons), which forms the outer shell of the atom. Atoms inter-change electromagnetic waves called photons. Molecules are held together by the gravitational field pressure. It is thought that a unit called the graviton flows back and forth between the molecules; however none have bind detected, the SQT claims the expanding spacetronic field exerts a pressure on all molecules, causing them to accelerate toward one another. It is thought that the spacetronic field between molecules is weakened, since each unit interferes with the others compressional fields which holds their energies in tact, consequently, they are accelerated toward one another by the impetus force of the spacetronic field. This is not to say that molecules do not create their own spacetronic field unit because they do. The photons they create, when purposely vibrated, are called matter waves, and the instrument that creates these beams are called masers (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) The fundamental theme that permeates the whole Space Quantum Theory is that all spatial and physical actions are performed by the process of expansion and contraction of spacetronic units which force is quantized and reciprocal.
As the second law of thermodynamics dictates, there is a loss in any heat system. The galaxies are no exception to the rule, even though its entropy is small over billions of years; the contraction produces some heat radiantion. It has been known for years that the further out into space one looks the redder the light appears coming from the distant galaxies. It is called the redshift effect, because when the spectrum of light is analyzed from distant celestial objects, their spectral lines show definite shift to the red side of the spectrum, and further out one looks the greater the redshift. It should be realize that the further out into space one looks the further back into time celestial objects are seen.. For instance, it takes light from the closest star four years to get to the earth. Light from the furthermost quasar takes 15 to 20 billion years. Light is an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength with a periodic frequency. Since space is expanding it stands to reason that electromagnetic waves, which are an operation of that space accourding to Maxwell, the wavelength must be spreading out. This wavelength has the same speed from all emitters from all places from all times. For instance, the emitters are quasars, their atoms emit the same type of light that are known and analyzed here on earth; notwithstanding, their wavelengths were created billions of years ago and have been traveling through space that has been expanding for all those years. Just on the bare surface of the idea, as Maxwell claims, if we think that space is the carrier of the wave one could suspect the expansion of space might have a shifting affect upon the wavelength of the light that has been moving through the expanding space for billions of years. However, considering the SQT, this expansion is taken up by the contraction of the spacetrons forming the quasars, therfore, the expansion does not indecate that the quasars are being move away from one another, due to this expansion. Nevertheless, when an emitting object is moving toward the earth the wavelengths received are shortened because of this motion, and the light appears bluer. When the source is moving away the wavelengths spreads out, and appears to be redder. To see this, one first notices that the time requiring a particular wave-crest to travel from the source to observer is simply the distance between the source and the observer divided by the speed of light. When the source of the wave is moving away the distance increases from one crest to the next. Hence, the time delay between emission at the source and reception at the observer increases also, from one crest to the next. This means that the crest reach the observer with progressively longer time delays. In other words, the time interval between the arrival of successive crests is more than the time interval between the emission of successive waves from the source. Since the waves always pass the observer at the standard fixed speed of light, it follows that the distance between the wave-crest must be farther apart than it would be if the source was stationary. The light, therefore, appears redder to an observer, because the wave is spread out more than it would be to anyone who happened to be moving with the source, when that source is moving away. Nevertheless, remember, the expanding spacetrons absorbs space and gives up energy to those contracting units that creates mass, a balance is reach, therefore quasars are not speeding away from us , as is supposed. However, the expanding space is the cause of the redshift just as if the quasars were speeding away from us, the seeming motion of the distant quasars is a fictitious motion. Consequently, contracted spacetrons created billions of years ago have evolved into quasars and then galaxies like the local group. The universe is almost a perfect adiabatic system, but not quite.
In 1965 two physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, were testing a very sensitive microwave detector and discovered a frequency that indicated a constant temperature of space in all directions of about three degrees Kilven. What this means is that the spacetronic fields between galaxies, since they began to create electromagnetic white hot spots, has been gradually warming up. The hot energies that pours back into the field do not completely coalesce to the state of equilibrium, but have shifted to 2.7 degrees Kilven. Where it had started out at zero Kilven degrees the universal spacetronic expanding field is now 2.7 degrees Kilven, having developed this heat energy from the thermodynamic process and shared by all celestial units. As the expansion slowly takes place with time, more energy is pumped into the center of the galaxies due to the spacetronic field contracting, and more energy is therefore, extracted from the expanding field due to this expansion. This is the "Law of Compensation" in action. Consequently, even though the spacetronic field is expanding, the galaxies remain relatively in the same place or move in consort. This action is not without cost, a gradual loss surrounds the system, which creates the background noise. The expansion energy loss does have its affect on the light moving through it. This loss of energy in the spacetronic field spreads out the electromagnetic wave giving it a redshift as time proceeds. The further back in time objects are seen the greater this redshift. See Fig 17 -- below
The wave crests emitted by the source are not spread out as they would be if the motion of the quasars were real. Remember also that the light wave becomes independent at the source once it leaves that source, meaning that the waves leaving the source are all regularly spaced, there is no spreading out of the light rays at the source, or at best minimal due to their local motion. The real cause of the redshift is due to the expansion of the universal field, and the residual energy not recoverable in the process. This residual weakening is the result of the imperfect Universal Adiabatic Process which adds to the 2.7 degree Kelvin temperature background noise at the beginning of infinity as time proceeds. Perhaps the way the universe keeps time. See Fig 18
It should be noted that this loss does not effect the gravitational pressure which remains constant in the galaxy. Incidentally, Einstein thought that if the quantum theory of energy and general relativity could be combined, this would result in a unified-field theory of all forces. The real difficulty for him was not realizing that his idea of space and time being continuous sets of points are really space quanta in a state of expansion, creating the impetus factor. The missing link between quantum mechanics and his general relativity theory is that the universe is in a state of expansion yielding this impetus factor, and that mass is being created in the galaxies of the universe by means of the reciprocal expansion and contraction law of the SQT. It will remain the "Missing Link" until it is brought into play in the thoughts of relativistic mathematicians. Time in Einstein's equations must be replaced with the expansion time of the SQT in his equations. Space is not just a mathematical abstraction employed in distances between bodies, rather, space exists with sufficient internal structure to permit the definition of inertial frames relative to mass, however space itself is not to be considered a physical inertial frame, rather a metaphysical frame of reference.
The Space Quantum Theory proposes that all space is quantized in units which are call spacetrons (spas-e-tron). One is able to conclude, for approximately the past 15 to 20 billion years, these space units have been expanding at a uniform rate, determined by the redshift in the light coming from distant galaxies. The redshift is caused by the weakening of the energy in the universal spacetronic expanding field previously noted in the Universal Adiabatic Process. Further, it is assumed that space is composed of discontinuous units of extension, capable of expanding and contracting with the speed of light squared. They vibrate in all directions, in a random manner, inwardly and outwardly, which minute action can be recognize as a spacetronic field of energy. They form a spacetronic standing wave field that supports all the electromagnetic wave action including the molecular motion, in addition to atomic motion. Creation and destruction of virtual particles gives a good reason for suspecting that space is not a void, coupled with the fact that space is in a state of expansion, both are thought to be factual. If it can be determined that space is not a void, one can then agree with Descartes when he said: ---
"There is no empty space, extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space." Einstein 136
Einstein thought to prove this idea was correct when he devised the general relativity theory, which states that mass exhibits geometric properties in the space around it. Einstein tried to conceive space to be "arbitrary continuous transformations." 156
However, his theory lacks two very important assumtions; one is that space is quantized, the other is that these quanta are in a state of expansion. Regardless, Einstein discovered that space around mass is non-Euclidean, but when he formulated the general theory of relativity it was not known that space was in a state of expansion, at that time. Nevertheless, it does not mean that the geometric properties of space around mass necessarily emanates from mass, on the contrary, this is exactly what Einstein proposed to eliminate in his general theory. As was said before, Newton and Einstein both claimed that gravitational acceleration is independent of the mass or the energy being accelerated inwardly toward the center of a mass, be it a neutron, proton, atom, molecule or a massive planet like earth.
If gravitation is independent of the mass it accelerates, than, gravity must emanate from the space that exists around mass. Hence, in order for it to influence mass of every description, is it not reasonable to suppose that space is quantized; and that it plays an integral part in creating mass, in the first place, due to the expansion of the space quanta? Secondly, space maintains mass as a unit by the pressure exerted upon mass by the expanding quanta of the universe. This being accomplished by the impetus force created by the expandsion of the spacetronic field as a whole.
The Space Quantum Theory carries these ideas one step further and concludes there is no such thing as mass with out space. It is space that is responsible for the existence of mass. It is the contraction of space composed of spacetrons that comprises mass. One might say mass is the finite string of space relative to infinite space. The creation of mass occurs in the center of the sun's galaxy, as it does in all galaxies, due to the dynamic expansion of the spacetronic field that surrounds the nucleus. Galaxies are mass generators. Two infinite superstrings of spacetrons meet at a specific place, that is, two superstrings directed inwardly from opposite directions toward one point in space, their finite meeting causing the contraction of a string of compressed spacetrons to appear, which contrast with the rest of space in a state of expansion that surounds the unit; this is what I mean by the finite string unit of space relative to infinite space. Three of these compressed string units combine to form what is called a spasonic field of motion, or simply a spason. The length of each of the three spason strings is of the order of the Planck length - 10^-35, and are known a neutrino. Each unit has a limited number of spacetrons in a state of contraction, that after having reached their state of being fully contracted, further expansion pressure results in the unit transferring its potential energy to kinetic energy in the surrounding spacetronic field by commencing to vibrate and rotate. The rotation is accomplished by the string bending on both ends, in a counterclockwise direction, causing a serpentine string to appear which transfers its string energy sideways to the adjacent units by means of kinetic pressure causing them to contract, then expand, then contract, ad infinitum. They transfer this kinetic energy to other adjacent spacetrons whereby the two energy strings sashays around in a spherical manner about a third string causing a gyroscopic energy field to appear, by contrast, in the expanding spacetronic field. Once having been created, the unit is maintained by the rest of the surrounding spacetronic field by the dynamic pressure of the field's state of expansion, a somewhat closed system of spacetronic motion. It is assumed that three of these units combine to form the quark and three quarks combine to form the hadrons, that is, neutrons and protons.
The existence of these finite strings of energy, the spasonic global field, is maintained by the shear expansion pressure set up by the dynamic time factor of the opposite infinite superstrings of standing vibrating spacetrons which facilitates the motion by means of the dynamic expansion impetus factor. The non-linear dynamic interplay between the spasonic strings and the surrounding spacetronic field creates the electron-magnetic flux that exists around all atoms and facilitates in their uniting to form various atoms and then molecules. See Fig 11. The proposition that one and only one particular type of string unit is capable of existing as a natural phenomenon, which is called a spason, gives credence to the idea that all mass is a build up of identical string units, particles that make neutrons, that spawn atoms of hydrogen, from which all other atoms are the multiples of the proton-electron pairs. It is assumed that the galactic nucleus only spawned the electromagnetic waves to begin with, which emanated from the spason strings in the beginning of universal time. Gradually as these various pockets of energy grew and inter-communicated with one another; the spasons formed quarks that in turn formed neutrons and proton-electron pairs, the hydrogen atom. The spason gyrates for the simple reason that after having reached its full potential, contractual response, meaning their potential energy build up, any further pressure is developed as kinetic energy. The gyration stabilizes the unit. Three units unite to form a larger mass called a quark, a vortex of vibrating units of space. Three quarks unite forming neutrons, a field of neutral spacetronic motion. They are simply quantized vibrating fields of spacetronic energy. The spacetron itself does not move from place to place, it is the compressed vibrations, or the energy of motion that travels through the spacetronic field and presents a force of existence toward any other such unit. This force of existence is neutral as long as it is confined to a strongly compressed spacetronic field, such as within the nucleus of an atom, conversely, it does present a physical force of being, as a confined compressional unit of spacetronic energy.
The neutron can split to form a proton, a positive charged field of slightly less energy. It is a more compressed field that again exhibits the vortex affect of the quark. It spawns an electron, which unit is called a negative charged field, an expanding-contracting spasonic like field that surrounds the proton. This happens when the neutron is expelled from the nucleus of the Galactic center. This also happens to the neutron upon leaving the nucleus of an atom, in about 15 minutes. The spacetronic field does not support the neutron as a single unit, therefore, the unit decays. The energy of the motion the unit had as a neutron is not lost in any sense of the word; rather, it is spread out over a large spacetronic area creating what is called an electron, a negative charged field of the remaining energy, meaning an outward push of spacetronic motion against the expanding field that holds the unit in tact. The electron forms an electromagnetic rotation of the excess energy around the proton, neutralizing the proton relative to the expanding field, and other such units. The interplay between the electron and the surrounding spacetrons, sets up a magnetic flux. There is a very slight loss of the neutron's residual energy that moves off in a unit called a neutrino. A unit formed from the neutron by decay is the hydrogen atom. Hydrogen atoms combine to form Helium. These atoms, created around the nucleus of the galaxy, pour out of that center in huge clouds that are force to combine to form stars by the shear pressure of the spacetronic field which is in a state of expansion. The pressure becomes so great that the hydrogen atoms are forced to combine to form helium, giving off heat and light, and a star is born. All atoms are composed of neutrons, protons and electrons. Atoms form molecules. Molecules are the building blocks of nature. Out side of the spason, each of the other units in turn have their own individual size, which is maintained by the spacetronic field collectively and as a whole. They associate and respond to each other through the transfer of energy by means of the spacetronic field, setting up electromagnetic particles that are transferred between one another. In this manner they reflect their existence to one another through the spacetronic motion of the field between them for mutual benefit and or domination. The whole conglomerate of matter is an exercise of organized spacetronic vibratory motion. One should realize that mass units are simply organized compressed spacetronic fields of vibrating spacetrons, potential energy, and are not solid objects like rocks, trees, houses, chairs, and people, that the eyes sees and the mind imagines to be solid objects. See Fig 10 & 11
It is easy to image space with out mass, but it is next to impossible, if not impossible, to imagine mass without space, unless one says that all space is mass, what ever that would mean. One can say that gravitational acceleration is independent of mass since mass is totally dependent on the field that generates gravity, namely, the spacetronic field. It must be said that because mass is created and held together by the spacetronic field, then the gravitational field, meaning the spacetronic expansion force, must conform to mass. This is what Einstein means when he says that the space around mass must necessarily be non-Euclidean. This non-Euclidean space around mass can be seen in the microscopic polystyrene spheres made aboard a space shuttle in 1982. They are beaded perfectly as was a drop of water in an experiment on a Soviet space station. These beads are now used in many industries to calibrate instruments, they are perfectly spherically fabricated, since they were created in a spacetronic field with a perfect non-Euclidean environment. It might be further added, the field around mass is a quantized spacetronic field according to the organized mass it contains, regardless of whether it be a neutron, atom, molecule, planet, star, the whole galaxy, groups of galaxies, or the universe as a whole.
While quantum mechanics, a mathematical system, dictates the uncertainty principle when dealing with mass structure below the atomic level, general relativity theory, a different mathematical system, predicts a certainty principle with mass structure above the molecular levels. Einstein sought to find a unifying mathematical theory that would make the quantum theory as predictable as relativity, but without success. The electromagnetic theory that exists between these two theories is another mathematical system called the Lorentz-Maxwell electrodynamics system which is both a certainty and uncertainty principled theory depending upon what is measured. Einstein incorporated this theory into special relativity.
Einstein's theory of gravity is not a force that acts between objects as with Newton's theory of gravity, on the contrary, he viewed gravity as a property of space itself, which includes the fourth dimension of time. His time dimension lacked the energy to move space, as he pictured it to be. He said matter warps or curves spacetime causing the gravitational effect. To Einstein gravity did not exist without mass. In a perfectly uniform universe, one containing no matter, there would exist only time and a vast sheet of space representing the possibility of gravity. One must remember that Einstein devised his theory of gravity before it was known that space was in a state of expansion. Even so, his theory depicts space as a three dimensional structure of space developing in time. In fact, Einstein didn't like the idea of an expanding universe his equations were predicting. He inserted a factor called the cosmological term to account for the know movement of celestial objects, which term he claimed, to Gamow, was one of the biggest mistakes of his life, since it was later found that space is in a state of expansion. Mook 190
Shortly before his death Einstein reached what appeared to him to be the solution toward which he had been striving since he formulated his theory. In his own words, he said; "Space has devoured ether and time; it seems to be on the point of swallowing up also the field and corpuscles, so that it alone remains as the vehicle of reality." Toward the end of his life Einstein thought of space as being the extension of mass and energy. Why he never saw the ultimate theory and declare that space was quantized, in view of the fact that he saw space as the vehicle of reality, is difficult to understand. While it requires the use of mathematics before the true essence of the quantum theory and relativity can be fully grasped, mathematics alone can not detect the Space Quantum Theory, it requires the imaging power of man's mind to correctly interpret the redshift as understood by the SQT. This is because the center of galaxies may be experimentally determine to be taking in mass as well as ejecting it out of its center. The Space Quantum Theory is the theory that ties quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and general relativity together in as much as it declares that mass is a compressed vibrating spacetronic field whose spatial determinations at the very basic level of mass actuality are locally undeterminable, nonetheless, the fields are discernible using quantum mechanics statistically, in the first instance. Secondly, it declares that an expanding spacetronic field curves around mass, pressing inwardly predictably as the theory of general relativity dictates. Mass is continually subjected to the pressures of space expansion, the expansion of the spacetronic field as time proceeds. It effects the mass of the galaxy; the very atoms which comprise its body. Realizing that mass is an electromagnetic field of spacetronic motion, that must physically transfer its energy through the spacetronic field by the means of the pressure of its motion, one is able to devise experiments that proves this idea to be a factual representation of the events by means of quantum mechanics.
The Space Quantum Theory further declares the spacetronic field vibrates at C squared in three directions at any one time. Since the spacetron is expanding in all directions at the same time, each individual spacetron must be viewed as a standing wave vibration of space itself, a standing wave energy field, with a wavelength in any one direction of 2 X 10^-42 meters. The expanding field produces an impetus force that impinges upon mass from every direction and physically maintains mass as an integral unit of energy that creates the world. Matter being a specifically trapped wave field of compressed spacetronic motion composed of atoms that form molecules. The reason that nothing can move faster than the speed of light, meaning mass or energy, is simply because the spacetronic field cannot support energy moving faster than light. Though the field vibrates at a rate of speed of C squared, it is only capable of moving energy at the speed of light in any one direction. This is simply because the standing wave vibration, meaning the elasticity of the spacetronic field, only accelerates at the speed of ligh, in any one directiont; thus, the top speed in the universe is C, even though the field vibrates at C squared. It should also be remembered that energy moves in two different modes, first electric, meaning the compression of space, second magnetic, meaning the expansion of the spacetronic field. Mass exercises no physical power of its own. It seeks the lowest energy level possible that it had when it was spawned by the neutron. The electromagnetic interplay between atoms causes each unit to mutually share in the electromagnetic energies in its area. Upon absorbing these energies the electron is forced into a higher orb, according to the quantized energy it receives. When an atom gives up energy, it does so when an electron drops into a lower energy level. The energy leaving the atom is a field of compressed spacetrons that immediately begins to expand, impinging upon the spacetronic field of standing wave vibrations, causing that field to contract a particular quantity, and in a particular direction according to the amount of energy (pressure) given up by the atom. Immediately, this newly created contracted field of pressure, in turn, begins to expand, creating another contracted field, ad infinitum, with the velocity of C. This quantized energy unit is called a photon. See Fig 19 & 20
One is able to detect these spacetronic waves as light, with respect to electrons and heat with respect to atoms and molecules. Larger wavelengths are created in the spacetronic field by oscillating electrons moving up and down a radio antenna, etc. Very short gamma waves are created as spasons oscillate in decaying nuclei, which decay is caused by the weakening of the universal spacetronic expanding field by creating the impetus energy that holds mass and energy together, denoting the advance of time in the galactic field. One first detects units of mass as particles, then atoms and then as molecules. Molecules form together as a gas, as their vibrations become more compressed they become a liquid. When they reach the most compressed state they appear as crystals; the particles of an element assume regular spacetronic distances from each other and more en masse. Through lowering temperature and increasing the pressure upon atoms, in the process of condensing them more than their natural state of being, it is possible to reduce all atoms to the crystal state of being. Even hydrogen atoms are capable of crystallizing given enough pressure. The spacetronic gravitational acceleration plays a very important integral part of all these actions.
Space Quantum Theory further develops these ideas claiming mass is being created at the center of all galaxies. The galaxy exist in a light globe which light is expanding with the speed of light, in the first instance, and contracting at the speed of light, in the second instance, by contrast, within the galaxy it is in a more contracted state and the closer to the galactic center the greater the contacting force of the spacetronic field. In the central area of the galactic nucleus spasons are created which assemble into quarks that form neutrons. These neutrons whirl around the center in vast quantities. Some decay into positive and negative ions that generate electromagnetic waves that pass out into the spacetronic field in huge quantities that radio astronomers are able to detect. Others are ejected to create hydrogen, helium and other atoms that pour out of the central area to form clouds which coalesce to form the stars.
There is a quid pro quo between the spacetrons that are contracting relative to those that are expanding, the exchange of energy for space and space for energy, regardless, the Universal Adiabatic System of galactic fields is not a perfect exchange system, some energy leaks off creating the 2,7 K background noise. Even so, this is an advavtageas far as cosmologist are concerned for it gives them an indication of the age of the universe by the red shift in the light from other galaxies. When this redshift is properly interpreted it will yield a great deal more information. It is difficult for cosmologist to know the reality of the space units, other then their minute actions, since the material world is not composed of spacetrons per se, rather, it is the result of the actions of universal space in spacetronic expansion, creating a finite contraction of spacetronic motion called spasons that forms mass, and consequently the world.
It is needful to learn how to directly utilize this spacetronic energy. Regardless, it is the expansion action alone that organizes spacetronic motion into the energy called mass units; spasons, quarks, leptons, proton-electron pairs, creating the world. This organizational action begins at a point in space, the mass unit, and extends outwardly in all directions with diminishing affect. It seems there should be some way to tap into this spacetronic energy field other then by the electromagnetic force. Perhaps, by creating a revolving magnetic field. Its effects can be seen in the super- conductivity of mass when mass is brought to a very low temperature. It seems that the electric force must be primitive in comparison to the vast energy of the spacetronic field storehouse.
Each unit of space is in a constant state of random standing vibration with the speed of light squared. Mass arises when this minute action becomes centralized and in a compressed state of inward-outward action organized en masse and this happens in the center of the galaxy. Once having been organized in the manner explained above this energy is ejected from the nucleus of the galaxy. This energy, this transitory motion, exhibited in different spacetrons from where it was created, is held together by the combined action of all the spacetrons. In other words, this created organized motion travels as a field of energy, in tact, through the spacetronic field that is in a constant state of being expanded. Those spacetrons that hold this motion at this instant, necessarily pass this motion on to other units, according to the laws of electromagnetic field of action. The whole galaxy moves as one unit through space.
Spacetronic action keeps mass (potential) energy together and forever in a state of excitement. This combined action is called the gravitational force, in one instance, and the electromagnetic in another. This action extends inwardly with the speed of light. If any of the absorbed energy is not needed it is immediately expelled with the speed of light. In this manner mass is stabilized with the expanding field. The escape velocity of energy from the atom is the speed of light. Consequently, expelled energy exists in a free fall toward infinity. This spacetronic action continues in atoms creating the strong force that holds the nucleus together. It should be understood from these concepts that mass, in reality, is a congestion of motion, at a specific point in space, at a specific time. The statistical independence of the particle or the wave appears depending on the conditional probability distribution of motion as being more congested or less congested as the case may be; more congested statistically the particle is present, less congested the wave is present. Since conglomerate mass is composed of many orientations of statistically independent motions, at a specific point in space, at a specific time, as determined be quantum mechanics, the world appears as a stable unit of phenomena, wherein man can have his life, and discover the laws that govern such actions. Quantum electrodynamics deal with these ideas mathematically using letters such as h and j which stand for rest mass and change of charge. Adding up units express by little arrows in order to determine the measured mass m and the measured charge e according to the mass and amplitude of the units and their coupling actions with photons as told in the book on QED listed in the bibliography.
The object in this discourse is to try and provoke in the mind of the reader notions that can lead to the discovery of other consequential effects of this system, but one must first contrast it with what was once thought about phenomena and what is presently known of phenomena.
Newton thought of matter as consisting of material points, the motions of which constitute physical happenings. He pictured light as a steam of particles that Einstein called photons. In his "Otics" he proposed that besides these photons there were guide waves, however, he thought them to be faster then the photons, which on striking a particular reflecting surface, caused it to have fits of easy and difficult transmitions. These guide waves he held responcible for the superpositional phonomena confronting his, that is, the slitting of a polarized beam of photonss when stricking a second polarizer. Newton used "Island cystals and spar" as polarizers. As Einstien used ghost waves in a unified theory, and de Broglie and Bobm used pilot waves associated with photons, Newton used them in his particle theory. Onlyh his particles were bathed in faster-than-light tachyons whirling around in the ether. Space and time he perceived as a frame, the place where things occurred and in which matter had its being as an inertial system. In this case physical reality was thought of as being independent of the subject experiencing it; and what is more, of space and time. Gravity reached out across time and empty space to grasp hold of objects, drawing them toward one another, according to their ponderable mass. Newton reasoned, if one imagines the universe with no other bodies beside the earth, there must still be something to which the earth's motion can be referred, that something according to him had to be space. To Newton space had physical existence, but its only characteristic was of being at rest. This idea suggested the attributes of the Supreme Being that scientist now rebelled against.
Ernst Mach was a scientist with a mission to unify scientific thought. He challenged Newton's ideas with the Newtonian principle that no superfluous assumptions ought to be made. The assumptions he considered to be superfluous was the idea of centrifugal force, and the persistence of objects in a straight line, like the Foucault's pendulum. Mach claimed everything can be explained by the law of universal gravitation. The force that caused the centrifugal force of the earth, and held Foucault's pendulum to its plane of vibration so that the earth turned underneath it, accordingly, betraying its rotation; this force was nothing less than the attraction of all the bodies in the universe; the stars and remote galaxies: in other words, the total gravitation of the universe. Mach argued, one must regard the rotation of the earth relative to the totality of matter in the universe. Mach claimed, Galileo's inertia, Newton's "persistence of objects in a straight line", and the inexplicable centrifugal force, all could be dropped. All these fundamental concepts of physics could be explained as effects of a single universal force --- gravitation. Ernst Mach reduced all motion in the universe to the single principle of universal gravitational attraction, it is known as "Mach's Principle". It made a profound impression on Einstein in his pursuit of the unified theory of the universe. The departure from this point of view came about in the first quarter of the nineteenth century with the development of the field concept of light. It will be recalled, that Newton regarded light as consisting of particles of mass. Many experiments with light was proving that light also must be regarded as a wave-field to account for interference and motion, that astonishingly resembled the mechanical vibration field in an elastic solid body. It was required, therefore, to regard light as a field of vibration in space away from ponderable mass. Not being aware of space having innate properties of its own (existing in units capable of expansion and contraction) physicists invented an ether which was suppose to facilitate in the execution of light waves similar to water waves and mechanical waves in mass. As more and more experience and experiments were perform, gradually, it became apparent that something was wrong with the ether theory. The mechanical concepts of material points performing such actions as interference, gave way to the electromagnetic processes in terms of energy fields that Faraday and Maxwell proposed.
The complete overthrow of the mechanical concept of the ether theory came about after the Michelson-Morley experiments proved that light moves in all directions with the same specific speed, regardless of the motion of the source, once the frequency of emission took place. However, these emissions, then, had to take upon themselves the whole affect of moving energy in a devised four-dimensional continuum that was, according to Einstein, objectively unresolvable; meaning there was no ether filling space propagating light energy, space was simply space, nothing more. Under this new concept, not only was ether objectively unresolvable, but the emitted electromagnetic field became an irreducible element of physical description, the same as Newton's material points of matter. Clearly new ideas and concepts were needed if physicists were to get a better understanding of the real world.
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